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Urban climate

About: Urban climate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4992 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 166644 citation(s). more


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-73412-5_12
Michael J. Paul1, Judy L. MeyerInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The world’s population is concentrated in urban areas. This change in demography has brought landscape transformations that have a number of documented effects on stream ecosystems. The most consistent and pervasive effect is an increase in impervious surface cover within urban catchments, which alters the hydrology and geomorphology of streams. This results in predictable changes in stream habitat. In addition to imperviousness, runoff from urbanized surfaces as well as municipal and industrial discharges result in increased loading of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other contaminants to streams. These changes result in consistent declines in the richness of algal, invertebrate, and fish communities in urban streams. Although understudied in urban streams, ecosystem processes are also affected by urbanization. Urban streams represent opportunities for ecologists interested in studying disturbance and contributing to more effective landscape management. more

Topics: Urban stream (66%), Urban climate (60%), Urbanization (55%) more

2,850 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JOC.859
A. John Arnfield1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Progress in urban climatology over the two decades since the first publication of the International Journal of Climatology is reviewed. It is emphasized that urban climatology during this period has benefited from conceptual advances made in microclimatology and boundary-layer climatology in general. The role of scale, heterogeneity, dynamic source areas for turbulent fluxes and the complexity introduced by the roughness sublayer over the tall, rigid roughness elements of cities is described. The diversity of urban heat islands, depending on the medium sensed and the sensing technique, is explained. The review focuses on two areas within urban climatology. First, it assesses advances in the study of selected urban climatic processes relating to urban atmospheric turbulence (including surface roughness) and exchange processes for energy and water, at scales of consideration ranging from individual facets of the urban environment, through streets and city blocks to neighbourhoods. Second, it explores the literature on the urban temperature field. The state of knowledge about urban heat islands around 1980 is described and work since then is assessed in terms of similarities to and contrasts with that situation. Finally, the main advances are summarized and recommendations for urban climate work in the future are made. Copyright © 2003 Royal Meteorological Society. more

Topics: Urban climatology (76%), Urban climate (68%), Urban heat island (58%) more

2,355 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00013-0
Per Bolund1, Sven Hunhammar2, Sven Hunhammar1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ecosystem services generated by ecosystems within the urban area. ‘Ecosystem services’ refers to the benefits human populations derive from ecosystems. Seven different urban ecosystems have been identified: street trees; lawns:parks; urban forests; cultivated land; wetlands; lakes:sea; and streams. These systems generate a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, six local and direct services relevant for Stockholm are addressed: air filtration, micro climate regulation, noise reduction, rainwater drainage, sewage treatment, and recreational and cultural values. It is concluded that the locally generated ecosystem services have a substantial impact on the quality-of-life in urban areas and should be addressed in land-use planning. © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. more

Topics: Urban ecosystem (73%), Ecosystem services (69%), Ecosystem health (62%) more

2,138 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1211658109
Abstract: Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr−1), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. more

Topics: Urban climate (65%), Urbanization (60%), Urban planning (58%) more

1,998 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE01675
Eugenia Kalnay1, Ming Cai1Institutions (1)
29 May 2003-Nature
Abstract: The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases1 and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture2. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature3,4. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural areas, but the results differ significantly depending on whether population data5 or satellite measurements of night light6,7,8 are used to classify urban and rural areas7,8. Here we use the difference between trends in observed surface temperatures in the continental United States and the corresponding trends in a reconstruction of surface temperatures determined from a reanalysis of global weather over the past 50 years, which is insensitive to surface observations, to estimate the impact of land-use changes on surface warming. Our results suggest that half of the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range is due to urban and other land-use changes. Moreover, our estimate of 0.27 °C mean surface warming per century due to land-use changes is at least twice as high as previous estimates based on urbanization alone7,8. more

Topics: Urban climate (61%), Urbanization (55%), Population (53%) more

1,758 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Chao Ren

15 papers, 662 citations

Matthias Demuzere

13 papers, 745 citations

Valéry Masson

13 papers, 329 citations

Karen C. Seto

11 papers, 3.4K citations

Benjamin Bechtel

11 papers, 532 citations

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