Topic

# Valence (chemistry)

About: Valence (chemistry) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24937 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 645252 citation(s). The topic is also known as: valency.

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TL;DR: A large set of more than 300 molecules representing all elements-except lanthanides-in their common oxidation states was used to assess the quality of the bases all across the periodic table, and recommendations are given which type of basis set is used best for a certain level of theory and a desired quality of results.

Abstract: Gaussian basis sets of quadruple zeta valence quality for Rb-Rn are presented, as well as bases of split valence and triple zeta valence quality for H-Rn. The latter were obtained by (partly) modifying bases developed previously. A large set of more than 300 molecules representing (nearly) all elements-except lanthanides-in their common oxidation states was used to assess the quality of the bases all across the periodic table. Quantities investigated were atomization energies, dipole moments and structure parameters for Hartree-Fock, density functional theory and correlated methods, for which we had chosen Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as an example. Finally recommendations are given which type of basis set is used best for a certain level of theory and a desired quality of results.

13,596 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, effective core potentials (ECP) have been derived to replace the innermost core electron for third row (K), fourth row (Rb-Ag), and fifth row (Cs-Au) atoms.

Abstract: Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the innermost core electron for third‐row (K–Au), fourth‐row (Rb–Ag), and fifth‐row (Cs–Au) atoms The outermost core orbitals—corresponding to the ns2np6 configuration for the three rows here—are not replaced by the ECP but are treated on an equal footing with the nd, (n+1)s and (n+1)p valence orbitals These ECP’s have been derived for use in molecular calculations where these outer core orbitals need to be treated explicitly rather than to be replaced by an ECP The ECP’s for the forth and fifth rows also incorporate the mass–velocity and Darwin relativistic effects into the potentials Analytic fits to the potentials are presented for use in multicenter integral evaluation Gaussian orbital valence basis sets are developed for the (3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p), (4s, 4p, 4d, 5s, 5p), and (5s, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p) ortibals of the three respective rows

12,824 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Coulomb, exchange, and core-orthogonality effects of the chemically inert core electron in the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg have been replaced by the ab initio effective core potentials (ECP).

Abstract: Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP’s) have been generated to replace the Coulomb, exchange, and core‐orthogonality effects of the chemically inert core electron in the transition metal atoms Sc to Hg. For the second and third transition series relative ECP’s have been generated which also incorporate the mass–velocity and Darwin relativistic effects into the potential. The ab initio ECP’s should facilitate valence electron calculations on molecules containing transition‐metal atoms with accuracies approaching all‐electron calculations at a fraction of the computational cost. Analytic fits to the potentials are presented for use in multicenter integral evaluation. Gaussian orbital valence basis sets are developed for the (3d,4s,4p), (4d,5s,5p), and (5d,6s,6p) orbitals of the first, second, and third transition series atoms, respectively. All‐electron and valence‐electron atomic excitation energies are also compared for the low‐lying states of Sc–Hg, and the valence‐electron calculations are found to reproduce the all‐electron excitation energies (typically within a few tenths of an eV).

11,223 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a triple zeta valence (TZV) basis set is presented for Li to Kr. The TZV bases are characterized by typically including a single contraction to describe inner shells and three basis functions for valence shells.

Abstract: Contracted Gaussian basis sets of triple zeta valence (TZV) quality are presented for Li to Kr. The TZV bases are characterized by typically including a single contraction to describe inner shells and three basis functions for valence shells. All parameters—orbital exponents and contraction coefficients—have been determined by minimization of atomic self‐consistent field ground state energies. Advantages and necessary modifications of TZV basis sets are discussed for simple test calculations of molecular energies and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shieldings in treatments with and without inclusion of electron correlation.

7,283 citations