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About: Vancomycin is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12056 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 384194 citation(s). The topic is also known as: (2.2Sp,3.5sa,2.6sp)-O(4.2),C(3.4) & Vancocin. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/421946
Abstract: Background. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Methods. Data from a nationwide, concurrent surveillance study (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiological Importance [SCOPE]) were used to examine the secular trends in the epidemiology and microbiology of nosocomial BSIs. Results. Our study detected 24,179 cases of nosocomial BSI in 49 US hospitals over a 7-year period from March 1995 through September 2002 (60 cases per 10,000 hospital admissions). Eighty-seven percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-positive organisms caused 65% of these BSIs, gram-negative organisms caused 25%, and fungi caused 9.5%. The crude mortality rate was 27%. The most-common organisms causing BSIs were coagulasenegative staphylococci (CoNS) (31% of isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), enterococci (9%), and Candida species (9%). The mean interval between admission and infection was 13 days for infection with Escherichia coli, 16 days for S. aureus, 22 days for Candida species and Klebsiella species, 23 days for enterococci, and 26 days for Acinetobacter species. CoNS, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, Serratia species, and Acinetobacter species were more likely to cause infections in patients in intensive care units ( ). In neutropenic patients, infections P ! .001 with Candida species, enterococci, and viridans group streptococci were significantly more common. The proportion of S. aureus isolates with methicillin resistance increased from 22% in 1995 to 57% in 2001 ( , trend P ! .001 analysis). Vancomycin resistance was seen in 2% of Enterococcus faecalis isolates and in 60% of Enterococcus faecium isolates. Conclusion. In this study, one of the largest multicenter studies performed to date, we found that the proportion of nosocomial BSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms is increasing in US hospitals. more

Topics: Enterococcus (54%), Acinetobacter (52%), Intensive care (52%) more

3,787 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CID/CIQ146
Catherine Liu1, Arnold S. Bayer2, Sara E. Cosgrove3, Robert S. Daum4  +8 moreInstitutions (9)
Abstract: Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for adult and pediatric patients with MRSA infections. The guidelines discuss the management of a variety of clinical syndromes associated with MRSA disease, including skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), bacteremia and endocarditis, pneumonia, bone and joint infections, and central nervous system (CNS) infections. Recommendations are provided regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring, management of infections due to MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, and vancomycin treatment failures. more

Topics: Telavancin (60%), Vancomycin (59%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (57%) more

2,969 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1205037
Els van Nood1, A. Vrieze, Max Nieuwdorp, Susana Fuentes  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A b s t r ac t Results The study was stopped after an interim analysis. Of 16 patients in the infusion group, 13 (81%) had resolution of C. difficile-associated diarrhea after the first infu - sion. The 3 remaining patients received a second infusion with feces from a differ- ent donor, with resolution in 2 patients. Resolution of C. difficile infection occurred in 4 of 13 patients (31%) receiving vancomycin alone and in 3 of 13 patients (23%) receiving vancomycin with bowel lavage (P<0.001 for both comparisons with the infusion group). No significant differences in adverse events among the three study groups were observed except for mild diarrhea and abdominal cramping in the in- fusion group on the infusion day. After donor-feces infusion, patients showed in- creased fecal bacterial diversity, similar to that in healthy donors, with an increase in Bacteroidetes species and clostridium clusters IV and XIVa and a decrease in Proteobacteria species. Conclusions The infusion of donor feces was significantly more effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection than the use of vancomycin. (Funded by the Nether- lands Organization for Health Research and Development and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR1177.) more

Topics: Bezlotoxumab (61%), Clostridium difficile (53%), Fidaxomicin (52%) more

2,691 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JAC/40.1.135
Abstract: (MRSA) with reduced suscept-ibility to vancomycin (MIC 8 mg/L). The strain was isolated from a surgical wound infection which was refrac -tory to vancomycin therapy.In May 1996, a 4 month-old male infant underwent heartsurgery for pulmonary atresia. Two weeks followingsurgery, the infant became febrile and developed a purulent discharge from the sternal surgical incision site;culture of the purulent material yielded MRSA. The patientwas treated with vancomycin (45 mg/kg daily) for 29 days,but fever and discharge of pus continued, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) remained elevated (40 mg/L). Thetreatment was changed to a combination of vancomycin andarbekacin (an aminoglycoside approved for MRSA infec-tion in Japan). After 12 days of this regimen, the purulentdischarge subsided, the wound began to heal, and the CRPdeclined from 40 to 9 mg/L. The antimicrobial therapy wasdiscontinued. However, 12 days later the surgical siteappeared inflamed with the development of a subcutaneousabscess accompanied by a sudden onset of fever and a raised CRP level of 35 mg/L. Therapy was resumed with the com -bination of arbekacin and ampicillin/sulbactam which hasbeen shown to have synergic activity against MRSA. more

Topics: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (61%), Surgical wound (57%), Vancomycin (53%) more

1,971 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/CMR.3.1.46
Barbara E. Murray1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Enterococci are important human pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. These organisms were previously considered part of the genus Streptococcus but have recently been reclassified into their own genus, called Enterococcus. To date, 12 species pathogenic for humans have been described, including the most common human isolates, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Enterococci cause between 5 and 15% of cases of endocarditis, which is best treated by the combination of a cell wall-active agent (such as penicillin or vancomycin, neither of which alone is usually bactericidal) and an aminoglycoside to which the organism is not highly resistant; this characteristically results in a synergistic bactericidal effect. High-level resistance (MIC, greater than or equal to 2,000 micrograms/ml) to the aminoglycoside eliminates the expected bactericidal effect, and such resistance has now been described for all aminoglycosides. Enterococci can also cause urinary tract infections; intraabdominal, pelvic, and wound infections; superinfections (particularly in patients receiving expanded-spectrum cephalosporins); and bacteremias (often together with other organisms). They are now the third most common organism seen in nosocomial infections. For most of these infections, single-drug therapy, most often with penicillin, ampicillin, or vancomycin, is adequate. Enterococci have a large number of both inherent and acquired resistance traits, including resistance to cephalosporins, clindamycin, tetracycline, and penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as oxacillin, among others. The most recent resistance traits reported are penicillinase resistance (apparently acquired from staphylococci) and vancomycin resistance, both of which can be transferred to other enterococci. It appears likely that we will soon be faced with increasing numbers of enterococci for which there is no adequate therapy. more

Topics: Enterococcus (62%), Enterococcus faecalis (57%), Vancomycin (56%) more

1,751 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael J. Rybak

142 papers, 12.9K citations

Ronald N. Jones

61 papers, 3K citations

George Sakoulas

50 papers, 4.4K citations

Helio S. Sader

47 papers, 1.8K citations

David P. Nicolau

30 papers, 525 citations

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