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Ventricle

About: Ventricle is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 21456 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 507177 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Marc A. Pfeffer1, Eugene Braunwald1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 1990-Circulation
TL;DR: The extent of ventricular enlargement after infarction is related to the magnitude of the initial damage to the myocardium and, although an increase in cavity size tends to restore stroke volume despite a persistently depressed ejection fraction, ventricular dilation has been associated with a reduction in survival.
Abstract: An acute myocardial infarction, particularly one that is large and transmural, can produce alterations in the topography of both the infarcted and noninfarcted regions of the ventricle. This remodeling can importantly affect the function of the ventricle and the prognosis for survival. In the early period, infarct expansion has been recognized by echocardiography as a lengthening of the noncontractile region. The noninfarcted region also undergoes an important lengthening that is consistent with a secondary volume-overload hypertrophy and that can be progressive. The extent of ventricular enlargement after infarction is related to the magnitude of the initial damage to the myocardium and, although an increase in cavity size tends to restore stroke volume despite a persistently depressed ejection fraction, ventricular dilation has been associated with a reduction in survival. The process of ventricular enlargement can be influenced by three interdependent factors, that is, infarct size, infarct healing, and ventricular wall stresses. A most effective way to prevent or minimize the increase in ventricular size after infarction and the consequent adverse effect on prognosis is to limit the initial insult. Acute reperfusion therapy has been consistently shown to result in a reduction in ventricular volume. The reestablishment of blood flow to the infarcted region, even beyond the time frame for myocyte salvage, has beneficial effects in attenuating ventricular enlargement. The process of scarification can be interfered with during the acute infarct period by the administration of glucocorticosteroids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, which result in thinner infarcts and greater degrees of infarct expansion. Modification of distending or deforming forces can importantly influence ventricular enlargement. Even short-term augmentations in afterload have deleterious long-term effects on ventricular topography. Conversely, judicious use of nitroglycerin seems to be associated with an attenuation of infarct expansion and long-term improvement in clinical outcome. Long-term therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor can favorably alter the loading conditions on the left ventricle and reduce progressive ventricular enlargement as demonstrated in both experimental and clinical studies. With the former therapy, this attenuation of ventricular enlargement was associated with a prolongation in survival. The long-term clinical consequences of long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy after myocardial infarction is currently being evaluated. Although studies directed at attenuating left ventricular remodeling after infarction are in the early stages, it does seem that this will be an important area in which future research might improve long-term outcome after infarction.

2,730 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: BACKGROUND: One third of patients with chronic heart failure have electrocardiographic evidence of a major intraventricular conduction delay, which may worsen left ventricular systolic dysfunction through asynchronous ventricular contraction. Uncontrolled studies suggest that multisite biventricular pacing improves hemodynamics and well-being by reducing ventricular asynchrony. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of this new therapy. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class III) due to chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction, with normal sinus rhythm and a duration of the QRS interval of more than 150 msec, received transvenous atriobiventricular pacemakers (with leads in one atrium and each ventricle). This single-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study compared the responses of the patients during two periods: a three-month period of inactive pacing (ventricular inhibited pacing at a basic rate of 40 bpm) and a three-month period of active (atriobiventricular) pacing. The primary end point was the distance walked in six minutes; the secondary end points were the quality of life as measured by questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption, hospitalizations related to heart failure, the patients' treatment preference (active vs. inactive pacing), and the mortality rate. RESULTS: Nine patients were withdrawn from the study before randomization, and 10 failed to complete both study periods. Thus, 48 patients completed both phases of the study. The mean distance walked in six minutes was 22 percent greater with active pacing (399+/-100 m vs. 326+/-134 m, P<0.001), the quality-of-life score improved by 32 percent (P<0.001), peak oxygen uptake increased by 8 percent (P<0.03), hospitalizations were decreased by two thirds (P<0.05), and active pacing was preferred by 85 percent of the patients (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although it is technically complex, atriobiventricular pacing significantly improves exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay.

2,487 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Helmut Baumgartner1, Judy Hung2, Javier Bermejo3, John C. Chambers4  +6 moreInstitutions (9)
Abstract: Abbreviations: AR aortic regurgitation, AS aortic stenosis, AVA aortic valve area, CSA cross sectional area, CWD continuous wave Doppler, D diameter, HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, LV left ventricle, LVOT left ventricular outflow tract, MR mitral regurgitation, MS mitral stenosis, MVA mitral valve area, DP pressure gradient, RV right ventricle, RVOT right ventricular outflow tract, SV stroke volume, TEE transesophageal echocardiography, T1/2 pressure half-time, TR tricuspid regurgitation, TS tricuspid stenosis, V velocity, VSD ventricular septal defect, VTI velocity time integral

2,018 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1970-Circulation
Abstract: To obtain information concerning the time course and instantaneous distribution of the excitatory process of the normal human heart, studies were made on isolated human hearts from seven individuals who died from various cerebral conditions, but who had no history of cardiac disease. Measurements were made from as many as 870 intramural terminals. In the isolated human hearts three endocardial areas were synchronously excited 0 to 5 msec after the start of the left ventricular activity potential. These areas increased rapidly in size during the next 5 to 10 msec and became confluent in 15 to 20 msec. The left ventricular areas first excited were (1) high on the anterior paraseptal wall just below the attachment of the mitral valve; (2) central on the left surface of the interventricular septum and (3) posterior paraseptal about one third of the distance from apex to base. The last part of the left ventricle to be activated usually was the posterobasal area. Endocardial activation of the right ventricle wa...

1,632 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1984-Circulation
TL;DR: The tricuspid gradient method provides an accurate and widely applicable method for noninvasive estimation of elevated right ventricular systolic pressures in patients with tric Suspid regurgitation detected by Doppler ultrasound.
Abstract: We evaluated the accuracy of a noninvasive method for estimating right ventricular systolic pressures in patients with tricuspid regurgitation detected by Doppler ultrasound. Of 62 patients with clinical signs of elevated right-sided pressures, 54 (87%) had jets of tricuspid regurgitation clearly recorded by continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound. By use of the maximum velocity (V) of the regurgitant jet, the systolic pressure gradient (delta P) between right ventricle and right atrium was calculated by the modified Bernoulli equation (delta P = 4V2). Adding the transtricuspid gradient to the mean right atrial pressure (estimated clinically from the jugular veins) gave predictions of right ventricular systolic pressure that correlated well with catheterization values (r = .93, SEE = 8 mm Hg). The tricuspid gradient method provides an accurate and widely applicable method for noninvasive estimation of elevated right ventricular systolic pressures.

1,534 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20225
2021586
2020592
2019574
2018582
2017589