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Viability assay

About: Viability assay is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 33900 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 688245 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Feb 2009-ACS Nano
TL;DR: A possible mechanism of toxicity is proposed which involves disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by Ag-np leading to production of ROS and interruption of ATP synthesis, which in turn cause DNA damage.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) are being used increasingly in wound dressings, catheters, and various household products due to their antimicrobial activity. The toxicity of starch-coated silver nanoparticles was studied using normal human lung fibroblast cells (IMR-90) and human glioblastoma cells (U251). The toxicity was evaluated using changes in cell morphology, cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. Ag-np reduced ATP content of the cell caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. DNA damage, as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN), was also dose-dependent and more prominent in the cancer cells. The nanoparticle treatment caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase possibly due to repair of damaged DNA. Annexin-V propidium iodide (PI) staining showed no massive apoptosis or necrosis. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis indicated the presen...

2,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system is described.
Abstract: We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system. The ultimate goal of this disease-oriented screen is to facilitate the discovery of new compounds with potential cell line-specific and/or subpanel-specific antitumor activity. In the current screening protocol, each cell line is inoculated onto microtiter plates, then preincubated for 24-28 hours. Subsequently, test agents are added in five 10-fold dilutions and the culture is incubated for an additional 48 hours. For each test agent, a dose-response profile is generated. End-point determinations of the cell viability or cell growth are performed by in situ fixation of cells, followed by staining with a protein-binding dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB). The SRB binds to the basic amino acids of cellular macromolecules; the solubilized stain is measured spectrophotometrically to determine relative cell growth or viability in treated and untreated cells. Following the pilot screening studies, a screening rate of 400 compounds per week has been consistently achieved.

2,838 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jul 1991-Nature
Abstract: Wild-type p53 protein has many properties consistent with its being the product of a tumour suppressor gene. Although the normal roles of tumour suppressor genes are still largely unknown, it seems that they could be involved in promoting cell differentiation as well as in mediating growth arrest by growth-inhibitory cytokines. Hence, the abrogation of wild-type p53 expression, which is a common feature of many tumours, could eliminate these activities. We have now tested this notion by restoring the expression of p53 in a murine myeloid leukaemic cell line that normally lacks p53. The use of a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant allowed us to analyse cells in which the introduced p53 had either wild-type or mutant properties. Although there seemed to be no effect on differentiation, the introduction of wild-type p53 resulted in rapid loss of cell viability in a way characteristic of apoptosis (programmed cell death). The effect of wild-type p53 was counteracted by interleukin-6. Thus products of tumour suppressor genes could be involved in restricting precursor cell populations by mediating apoptosis.

2,115 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The magnitude of the cytotoxic effects of all polymers were found to be time- and concentration dependent and the molecular weight as well as the cationic charge density of the polycations were confirmed as key parameters for the interaction with the cell membranes and consequently the cell damage.
Abstract: A comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study with different water-soluble, cationic macromolecules which have been described as gene delivery systems was performed. Cytotoxicity in L929 mouse fibroblasts was monitored using the MTT assay and the release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Microscopic observations were carried out as indicators for cell viability. Furthermore, hemolysis of erythrocytes was quantified spectrophotometrically. To determine the nature of cell death induced by the polycations, the nuclear morphology after DAPI staining and the inhibition of the toxic effects by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk were investigated. All assays yielded comparable results and allowed the following ranking of the polymers with regard to cytotoxicity: Poly(ethylenimine)=poly(L-lysine)>poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)>diethylaminoethyl-dextran>poly(vinyl pyridinium bromide)>Starburst dendrimer>cationized albumin>native albumin. The magnitude of the cytotoxic effects of all polymers were found to be time- and concentration dependent. The molecular weight as well as the cationic charge density of the polycations were confirmed as key parameters for the interaction with the cell membranes and consequently, the cell damage. Evaluating the nature of cell death induced by poly(ethylenimine), we did not detect any indication for apoptosis suggesting that the polymer induced a necrotic cell reaction. Cell nuclei retained their size, chromatin was homogenously distributed and cell membranes lost their integrity very rapidly at an early stage. Furthermore, the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk did not inhibit poly(ethylenimine)-induced cell damage. Insights into the structure-toxicity relationship are necessary to optimize the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of non-viral gene delivery systems.

1,987 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2005-Cell
TL;DR: Using growth factor-dependent cells from Bax/Bak-deficient mice, it is demonstrated that apoptosis is not essential to limit cell autonomous survival and growth factor signal transduction is required to direct the utilization of sufficient exogenous nutrients to maintain cell viability.
Abstract: In animals, cells are dependent on extracellular signals to prevent apoptosis. However, using growth factor-dependent cells from Bax/Bak-deficient mice, we demonstrate that apoptosis is not essential to limit cell autonomous survival. Following growth factor withdrawal, Bax-/-Bak-/- cells activate autophagy, undergo progressive atrophy, and ultimately succumb to death. These effects result from loss of the ability to take up sufficient nutrients to maintain cellular bioenergetics. Despite abundant extracellular nutrients, growth factor-deprived cells maintain ATP production from catabolism of intracellular substrates through autophagy. Autophagy is essential for maintaining cell survival following growth factor withdrawal and can sustain viability for several weeks. During this time, cells respond to growth factor readdition by rapid restoration of the ability to take up and metabolize glucose and by subsequent recovery of their original size and proliferative potential. Thus, growth factor signal transduction is required to direct the utilization of sufficient exogenous nutrients to maintain cell viability.

1,438 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202241
20213,229
20203,389
20193,301
20182,843
20172,633