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Viewpoints

About: Viewpoints is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2502 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 42870 citation(s).
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01 Jan 2014-
TL;DR: A model of how one group of actors managed this tension between divergent viewpoints was presented, drawing on the work of amateurs, professionals, administrators and others connected to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, during its early years.
Abstract: Scientific work is heterogeneous, requiring many different actors and viewpoints. It also requires cooperation. The two create tension between divergent viewpoints and the need for generalizable findings. We present a model of how one group of actors managed this tension. It draws on the work of amateurs, professionals, administrators and others connected to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, during its early years. Extending the Latour-Callon model of interessement, two major activities are central for translating between viewpoints: standardization of methods, and the development of 'boundary objects'. Boundary objects are both adaptable to different viewpoints and robust enough to maintain identity across them. We distinguish four types of boundary objects: repositories, ideal types, coincident boundaries and standardized forms.

7,305 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Scientific work is heterogeneous, requiring many different actors and viewpoints. It also requires cooperation. The two create tension between divergent viewpoints and the need for generalizable findings. We present a model of how one group of actors managed this tension. It draws on the work of amateurs, professionals, administrators and others connected to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, during its early years. Extending the Latour-Callon model of interessement, two major activities are central for translating between viewpoints: standardization of methods, and the development of `boundary objects'. Boundary objects are both adaptable to different viewpoints and robust enough to maintain identity across them. We distinguish four types of boundary objects: repositories, ideal types, coincident boundaries and standardized forms.

6,999 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many scholars across various academic disciplines are investigating the following questions: What do individuals know or believe about an organization? How does a focal organization (and/or other interested entity) develop, use, and/or change this information? and How do individuals respond to what they know or believe about an organization? Cross-disciplinary research that centers on these questions is desirable and could be enhanced if researchers identify and develop consistent terminology for framing these questions. The authors work toward that end by identifying four central ‘viewpoints’ of an organization and proposing labels to represent each of these viewpoints:identity, intended image, construed image, andreputation.

806 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A taxonomy of 31 multiple-choice item-writing guidelines was validated through a logical process that included two sources of evidence: the consensus achieved from reviewing what was found in 27 textbooks on educational testing and the results of 27 research studies and reviews published since 1990. This taxonomy is mainly intended for classroom assessment. Because textbooks have potential to educate teachers and future teachers, textbook writers are encouraged to consider these findings in future editions of their textbooks. This taxonomy may also have usefulness for developing test items for large-scale assessments. Finally, research on multiple-choice item writing is discussed both from substantive and methodological viewpoints.

710 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
C.S Lim1, M Zain Mohamed1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Doubts often arise about what and who actually determine project success. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues from different perspectives of people looking at the project. The difference between criterion and factor is first discussed. Criteria are the set of principles or standards by which judgement is made; whereas factors are the set of circumstances, facts, or influences which contribute to the result. This article then proposes to classify project success into two categories: the macro and micro viewpoints. Some pictorial representations and models are presented to assist in the understanding of the concepts. It is suggested that two criteria are sufficient to determine the macro viewpoint of project success: completion and satisfaction. Whereas the completion criterion alone is enough to determine the micro viewpoint of project success.

704 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202170
202079
2019111
201888
201767