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Viral entry

About: Viral entry is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8858 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 482354 citation(s). The topic is also known as: viral entry into host cell & GO:0046718. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.058
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination. more

Topics: Ectodomain (56%), Viral entry (55%), Epitope (53%) more

4,968 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/381667A0
20 Jun 1996-Nature
Abstract: The β-chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell–cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of β-chemokines. Expression of the β-chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5 in CD4+ , non-permissive human and non-human cells renders them susceptible to infection by NSI strains, and allows env-mediated membrane fusion. CC-CKR-5 is a second receptor for NSI primary viruses. more

3,257 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/373117A0
Xiping Wei1, Sajal Ghosh1, Maria E. Taylor1, Victoria A. Johnson1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
12 Jan 1995-Nature
Abstract: The dynamics of HIV-1 replication in vivo are largely unknown yet they are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Experimental drugs that are potent inhibitors of viral replication can be used to show that the composite lifespan of plasma virus and virus-producing cells is remarkably short (half-life approximately 2 days). Almost complete replacement of wild-type virus in plasma by drug-resistant variants occurs after fourteen days, indicating that HIV-1 viraemia is sustained primarily by a dynamic process involving continuous rounds of de novo virus infection and replication and rapid cell turnover. more

Topics: Viral entry (61%), Viral replication (60%), Viral transformation (60%) more

3,132 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NM1268
Takaji Wakita, Thomas Pietschmann1, Takanobu Kato2, Takanobu Kato3  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
12 Jun 2005-Nature Medicine
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global public health problem. Detailed analyses of HCV have been hampered by the lack of viral culture systems. Subgenomic replicons of the JFH1 genotype 2a strain cloned from an individual with fulminant hepatitis replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here we show that the JFH1 genome replicates efficiently and supports secretion of viral particles after transfection into a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Particles have a density of about 1.15–1.17 g/ml and a spherical morphology with an average diameter of about 55 nm. Secreted virus is infectious for Huh7 cells and infectivity can be neutralized by CD81-specific antibodies and by immunoglobulins from chronically infected individuals. The cell culture–generated HCV is infectious for chimpanzee. This system provides a powerful tool for studying the viral life cycle and developing antiviral strategies. more

Topics: Viral entry (63%), Viral load (62%), NS2-3 protease (62%) more

2,740 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.8456302
19 Mar 1993-Science
Abstract: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for conserved viral antigens can respond to different strains of virus, in contrast to antibodies, which are generally strain-specific. The generation of such CTLs in vivo usually requires endogenous expression of the antigen, as occurs in the case of virus infection. To generate a viral antigen for presentation to the immune system without the limitations of direct peptide delivery or viral vectors, plasmid DNA encoding influenza A nucleoprotein was injected into the quadriceps of BALB/c mice. This resulted in the generation of nucleoprotein-specific CTLs and protection from a subsequent challenge with a heterologous strain of influenza A virus, as measured by decreased viral lung titers, inhibition of mass loss, and increased survival. more

Topics: Viral entry (64%), Influenza A virus (61%), Orthomyxoviridae (61%) more

2,552 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Joseph Sodroski

64 papers, 9.2K citations

Deepak Shukla

32 papers, 2.1K citations

Gary R. Whittaker

31 papers, 3K citations

Thomas F. Baumert

28 papers, 2.1K citations

Gary H. Cohen

25 papers, 2.5K citations

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