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Topic

Viremia

About: Viremia is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4216 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 212531 citation(s). The topic is also known as: viraemia & Viremia.


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Journal ArticleDOI
24 May 1996-Science
TL;DR: Plasma viral load was a better predictor of progression to AIDS and death than was the number of CD4+ T cells, and the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death in study subjects was directly related to plasma viral load at study entry.
Abstract: The relation between viremia and clinical outcome in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) has important implications for therapeutic research and clinical care. HIV-1 RNA in plasma was quantified with a branched-DNA signal amplification assay as a measure of viral load in a cohort of 180 seropositive men studied for more than 10 years. The risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death in study subjects, including those with normal numbers of CD4+ T cells, was directly related to plasma viral load at study entry. Plasma viral load was a better predictor of progression to AIDS and death than was the number of CD4+ T cells.

2,731 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV- 1 in vivo is indicated.
Abstract: Virologic and immunologic studies were performed on five patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors specific for cells expressing antigens of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env were detected at or within 3 weeks of presentation in four of the five patients and were detected in all five patients by 3 to 6 months after presentation. The one patient with an absent initial CTL response had prolonged symptoms, persistent viremia, and low CD4+ T-cell count. Neutralizing antibody activity was absent at the time of presentation in all five patients. These findings suggest that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and indicate a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV-1 in vivo.

2,581 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Feb 1999-Science
TL;DR: The results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses.
Abstract: Clinical evidence suggests that cellular immunity is involved in controlling human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication. An animal model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to show that virus replication is not controlled in monkeys depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes during primary SIV infection. Eliminating CD8+ lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that was again suppressed coincident with the reappearance of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells. These results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses.

2,235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 1997-Science
Abstract: In evaluating current combination drug regimens for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, it is important to determine the existence of viral reservoirs. After depletion of CD8 cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both patients and normal donors, activation of patient CD4 lymphocytes with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28 enabled the isolation of virus from PBMCs of six patients despite the suppression of their plasma HIV RNA to fewer than 50 copies per milliliter for up to 2 years. Partial sequencing of HIV pol revealed no new drug resistance mutations or discernible evolution, providing evidence for viral latency rather than drug failure.

1,973 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Nov 1997-Science
TL;DR: In individuals who control viremia in the absence of antiviral therapy, polyclonal, persistent, and vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses were present, resulting in the elaboration of interferon-gamma and antiviral beta chemokines.
Abstract: Virus-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are critical to the maintenance of effective immunity in a number of chronic viral infections, but are characteristically undetectable in chronic human immunodeficiency virus–type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In individuals who control viremia in the absence of antiviral therapy, polyclonal, persistent, and vigorous HIV-1–specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses were present, resulting in the elaboration of interferon-γ and antiviral β chemokines. In persons with chronic infection, HIV-1–specific proliferative responses to p24 were inversely related to viral load. Strong HIV-1–specific proliferative responses were also detected following treatment of acutely infected persons with potent antiviral therapy. The HIV-1–specific helper cells are likely to be important in immunotherapeutic interventions and vaccine development.

1,908 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2021171
2020171
2019156
2018153
2017180
2016142