About: Visceral leishmaniasis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7486 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 184865 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Kala-Azar & viscus leishmaniasis.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts.
Abstract: As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy. Funding: The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development (AECID) has provided generous support to the WHO Leishmaniasis program since 2005. This support permitted among many other activities regional meetings with the AFRO, EURO, PAHO and SEARO countries, and provided for short term contracts for IDV, MdB, MH and JS related to the preparation of the country profiles. Sanofi provided a grant for a regional meeting with the EMRO countries and various activities related to the control of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the EMRO region. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org . These authors contributed equally to this work " For a full list of the members of the WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team please see the Acknowledgments section.
TL;DR: Research for leishmaniasis has been more and more focusing on the development of new tools such as diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines, and the newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas.
Abstract: Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88 countries, 350 million people at risk, 500,000 new cases of VL per year, 1-1.5 million for CL and DALYs: 2.4 millions. Most of the burden is concentrated on few countries which allows clear geographic priorities. Leishmaniasis is still an important public health problem due to not only environmental risk factors such as massive migrations, urbanisation, deforestation, new irrigation schemes, but also to individual risk factors: HIV, malnutrition, genetic, etc em leader Leishmaniasis is part of those diseases which still requires improved control tools. Consequently WHO/TDR research for leishmaniasis has been more and more focusing on the development of new tools such as diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines. The ongoing effort has already produced significant results. The newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas. In anthroponotic foci, the feasibility of getting a strong impact on mortality, morbidity and transmission, is high.
TL;DR: It is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy.
Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy.
01 Nov 2007-Nature Reviews Microbiology
TL;DR: Millefosine, paromomycin and liposomal amphotericin B are gradually replacing pentavalent antimonials and conventional amphoteric in B as the preferred treatments in some regions, but in other areas these drugs are still being evaluated in both mono- and combination therapies.
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic protozoan disease that is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Poor and neglected populations in East Africa and the Indian sub-continent are particularly affected. Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment remain key components of VL control. In addition to improved diagnostic tests, accurate and simple tests are needed to identify treatment failures. Miltefosine, paromomycin and liposomal amphotericin B are gradually replacing pentavalent antimonials and conventional amphotericin B as the preferred treatments in some regions, but in other areas these drugs are still being evaluated in both mono- and combination therapies. New diagnostic tools and new treatment strategies will only have an impact if they are made widely available to patients.
01 Apr 1997-Clinical Infectious Diseases
TL;DR: A review of leishmaniasis that are of practical value to practitioners, including presentation, diagnosis, and chemotherapy, can be found in this paper, where the authors emphasize advances in chemotherapy over the last 10 years.
Abstract: The current interest in leishmaniasis stems from the importance of this disease with respect to travel medicine, veterans of Operation Desert Storm, humanitarian concerns, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Herein, I review aspects of leishmaniasis that are of practical value to practitioners, including presentation, diagnosis, and chemotherapy; I will emphasize advances in chemotherapy over the last 10 years. Amphotericin B and its new lipid formulations are now competitive with pentavalent antimony as primary therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Pentamidine, paromomycin, and adjunctive therapy with interferon-gamma are secondary regimens for the treatment of this condition. High-dose long-term regimens of antimony have been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Preliminary evidence of efficacy has been observed with short courses of pentamidine for the treatment of Leishmania braziliensis complex disease and topical paromomycin/methylbenzethonium chloride for the treatment of Leishmania major disease.
Trending Questions (1)
Related Topics (5)
37K papers, 914K citations
21.3K papers, 800.4K citations
17.4K papers, 485.7K citations
12.6K papers, 461.4K citations
21.7K papers, 622.2K citations