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Viscometer

About: Viscometer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6328 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 117114 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids (i.e., uttrafine metallic oxide particles suspended in water) in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally. Viscosity measurements were also conducted using a Brookfield rotating viscometer. Two different metallic oxide particles, γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), with mean diameters of 13 and 27 nm, respectively, were used as suspended particles. The Reynolds and Prandtl numbers varied in the ranges l04-I05 and 6.5-12.3, respectively. The viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-Al2O3 and TiO2 particles at a 10% volume concentration were approximately 200 and 3 times greater than that of water, respectively. These viscosity results were significantly larger than the predictions from the classical theory of suspension rheology. Darcy friction factors for the dispersed fluids of the volume concentration ranging from 1% to 3% coincided well with Kays' correlation for turbulent flow of a single-phase fluid. The Nusselt n...

3,158 citations


Book
15 Jun 1989-
Abstract: 1) What is rheology? historical perspective the importance of non-linearity solids and liquids rheology is a difficult subject components of rheological research. 2) Viscosity practical ranges of variables which affect viscosity the shear-dependent viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids viscometers for measuring shear viscosity. 3) Linear viscoelasticity the meaning and consequences of linearity the Kelvin and Maxwell models the relaxation spectrum oscillatory shear relationships between functions of linear viscoelasticity methods of measurement. 4) Normal stresses the nature and origin of normal stresses typical behaviour of N 1 and N 2 observable consequences of N 1 and N 2 methods of measuring N 1 and N 2 relationships between viscometric functions and linear viscoelastic functions. 5) extensional viscosity importance of extensional flow theoretical considerations experimental methods experimental results some demonstrations of high extensional viscosity behaviour. 6) Rheology of polymeric liquids general behaviour effect of temperature on polymer rheology effect of molecular weight on polymer rheology effect of concentration on the rheology of polymer solutions polymer gels liquid crystal polymers. molecular theories the method of reduced variables empirical relations between rheological functions practical applications. 7) Rheology of suspensions the viscosity of suspensions of solid particles in Newtonian liquids the colloidal contribution to viscosity viscoelastic properties of suspensions suspensions of deformable particles the interaction of suspended particles with polymer molecules also present in the continuous phase computer simulation studies of suspension rheology. 8. Theoretical rheology basic principles of continuum mechanics successful applications of the formulation principles some general constitutive equations constitutive equations for restricted classes of flows simple constitutive equations of the Oldroyd/Maxwell type solution of flow problems.

2,568 citations


Book
07 Dec 2012-
Abstract: Preface 1. Texture, Viscosity and Food 2. Texture-Body Interactions 3. Physics and Texture 4. Principles of Objective Texture Measurement 5. Practise of Objective Texture Measurement 6. Viscosity Measurement 7. Sensory Methods of Texture and Viscosity Measurement 8. Correlation Between Physical Measurements and Sensory Assessments of Texture and Viscosity 9. Selection of a Suitable Test Procedure i. Appendix I - Suppliers of Texture and Viscosity Measuring Instruments Appendix II - Effect of Temperature on Texture Measurements Appendix III - Conditions of Testing Foods using the TA.XT2 Texture Analyser References Index

1,366 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the present paper, we have investigated experimentally the influence of both the temperature and the particle size on the dynamic viscosities of two particular water-based nanofluids, namely water–Al2O3 and water–CuO mixtures. The measurement of nanofluid dynamic viscosities was accomplished using a ‘piston-type’ calibrated viscometer based on the Couette flow inside a cylindrical measurement chamber. Data were collected for temperatures ranging from ambient to 75 °C, for water–Al2O3 mixtures with two different particle diameters, 36 nm and 47 nm, as well as for water–CuO nanofluid with 29 nm particle size. The results show that for particle volume fractions lower than 4%, viscosities corresponding to 36 nm and 47 nm particle-size alumina–water nanofluids are approximately identical. For higher particle fractions, viscosities of 47 nm particle-size are clearly higher than those of 36 nm size. Viscosities corresponding to water-oxide copper are the highest among the nanofluids tested. The temperature effect has been investigated thoroughly. A more complete viscosity data base is presented for the three nanofluids considered, with several experimental correlations proposed for low particle volume fractions. It has been found that the application of Einstein’s formula and those derived from the linear fluid theory seems not to be appropriate for nanofluids. The hysteresis phenomenon on viscosity measurement, which is believed to be the first observed for nanofluids, has raised serious concerns regarding the use of nanofluids for heat transfer enhancement purposes.

765 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Slip occurs in the flow of two-phase systems because of the displacement of the disperse phase away from solid boundaries. This arises from steric, hydrodynamic, viscoelastic and chemical forces and constraints acting on the disperse phase immediately adjacent to the walls. The enrichment of the boundary near the wall with the continuous (and usually low-viscosity) phase means that any flow of the fluid over the boundary is easier because of the lubrication effect. Because this effect is usually confined to a very narrow layer — with typical thickness of 0.1–10 μm—it so resembles the slip of solids over surfaces that it has historically been given the same terminology. The restoring force for all the forces that cause an increase in concentration is usually osmotic, and this will always limit the effective slip. In dilute systems, concentration gradients can be present over relatively large distances out from walls, giving what might be interpreted on an overall basis as a thick solvent-only layer. However, as the concentration of the system increases, the layer gets thinner and thinner because it is more difficult to create with the large reverse osmotic force present. However, the enormous increase in the bulk viscosity with increase in concentration means that although thinner, the layer becomes, paradoxically, even more important. Slip manifests itself in such a way that viscosity measured in different size geometries gives different answers if calculated the normal way — in particular the apparent viscosity decreases with decrease in geometry size (e.g. tube radius). Also, in single flow curves unexpected lower Newtonian plateaus are sometimes seen, with an apparent yield stress at even lower stresses. Sudden breaks in the flow curve can also be seen. Large particles as the disperse phase (remember flocs are large particles), with a large dependence of viscosity on the concentration of the dispersed phase are the circumstances which can give slip, especially if coupled with smooth walls and small flow dimensions. The effect is usually greatest at low speeds/flow rates. When the viscometer walls and particles carry like electrostatic charges and the continuous phase is electrically conducted, slip can be assumed. In many cases we need to characterise the slip effects seen in viscometers because they will also be seen in flow in smooth pipes and condults in manufacturing plants. This is usually done by relating the wall shear stress to a slip velocity using a power-law relationship. When the bulk flow has also been characterized, the flow in real situations can be calculated. To characterise slip, it is necessary to change the size of the geometry, and the results extrapolated to very large size to extract unambigouos bulk-flow and slip data respectively. A number of mathematical manipulations are necessary to retrieve these data. We can make attempts to eliminate slip by altering the physical or chemical character of the walls. This is usually done physically by roughening or profiling, but in the extreme, a vane can be used. This latter geometry has the advantage of being easy to make and clean. In either case—by extrapolation or elimination—we end up with the bulk flow properties. This is important in situations where we are trying to understand the microstructure/flow interactions.

754 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
202191
2020130
2019141
2018132
2017156

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

William A. Wakeham

25 papers, 1.9K citations

Scott Bair

24 papers, 529 citations

Eckhard Vogel

15 papers, 332 citations

Joseph Kestin

15 papers, 1.3K citations

Young I. Cho

14 papers, 3.4K citations