About: Viscosity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 53600 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1061193 citations.
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•01 Jan 1967
TL;DR: The dynamique des : fluides Reference Record created on 2005-11-18 is updated on 2016-08-08 and shows improvements in the quality of the data over the past decade.
Abstract: Preface Conventions and notation 1. The physical properties of fluids 2. Kinematics of the flow field 3. Equations governing the motion of a fluid 4. Flow of a uniform incompressible viscous fluid 5. Flow at large Reynolds number: effects of viscosity 6. Irrotational flow theory and its applications 7. Flow of effectively inviscid liquid with vorticity Appendices.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a Brookfield rotating viscometer to measure the viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles at a 10% volume concentration.
Abstract: Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids (i.e., uttrafine metallic oxide particles suspended in water) in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally. Viscosity measurements were also conducted using a Brookfield rotating viscometer. Two different metallic oxide particles, γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), with mean diameters of 13 and 27 nm, respectively, were used as suspended particles. The Reynolds and Prandtl numbers varied in the ranges l04-I05 and 6.5-12.3, respectively. The viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-Al2O3 and TiO2 particles at a 10% volume concentration were approximately 200 and 3 times greater than that of water, respectively. These viscosity results were significantly larger than the predictions from the classical theory of suspension rheology. Darcy friction factors for the dispersed fluids of the volume concentration ranging from 1% to 3% coincided well with Kays' correlation for turbulent flow of a single-phase fluid. The Nusselt n...
TL;DR: In this paper, an expression for the viscosity of solutions and suspensions of finite concentration is derived by considering the effect of the addition of one solute-molecule to an existing solution, which is considered as a continuous medium.
Abstract: An expression for the viscosity of solutions and suspensions of finite concentration is derived by considering the effect of the addition of one solute‐molecule to an existing solution, which is considered as a continuous medium.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered the case of particles of ellipsoidal shape, and showed that the condition for the validity of this approximation is that the product of the velocity of the ellipssoid by its linear dimensions shall be small compared with the "kinematic coefficient, of viscosity" of the fluid.
Abstract: In both physical and biological science, we are often concerned with the properties of a fluid, or plasma, in which small particles or corpuscles are suspended and carried about by the motion of the fluid. The presence of the particles will influence the properties of the suspension in bulk, and, in particular, its viscosity will be increased. The most complete mathematical treatment of the problem, from this point of view, has been that given by Einstein, who considered the case of spherical particles and gave a simple formula for the increase in the viscosity. We have extended this work to the case of particles of ellipsoidal shape. The second section of the paper is occupied with the requisite solution of the equations of motion of the fluid. The problem of the motion of a viscous fluid, due to an ellipsoid moving through it with a small velocity of translation in a direction parallel to one of its axes, has been solved by Oberbeck, and the corresponding problem for an ellipsoid rotating about one of its axes by Edwards. In both cases the equations of motion are approximated by neglecting the terms involving the squares of the velocities. It may be seen, a posteriori , that the condition for the validity of this approximation is that the product of the velocity of the ellipsoid by its linear dimensions shall be small compared with the “kinematic coefficient, of viscosity” of the fluid. In relation to our present problem, it will therefore be satisfied either for sufficiently slow motions, or for sufficiently small particles.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the results given by English with those of Washburn, Shelton and Libman, indicating a discrepancy in the absolute values of log10 viscosity amounting to 0.6.
Abstract: Viscosity of Simple Soda-Silicate Glasses, 500° to 1400°C Comparison of the results given by English with those of Washburn, Shelton and Libman, indicates a discrepancy in the absolute values of log10 viscosity amounting to 0.6, those of Washburn et al., being relatively too high. If correction for this is made, the isothermal curves of log10 viscosity as a function of soda content are smooth up to 50% Na2O, showing no inflection. The observations as a function of temperature T are all represented within accidental error by an equation of the type log10η=−A+B× 103/ (T−T0) where all three constants vary regularly with the composition. Change of Viscosity of Glass (6SiO2, 2Na2O) due to Molecular Substitution of CaO, MgO and Al2O3 for Na2O The effect is clearly brought out by plotting (from the results of English) the change of log10n due to the substitution as a function of temperature. The curves each show a sharp bend at a temperature between 840° and 1050°C, which is designated the aggregation temperature Ta. If we divide these curves by the corresponding percentage substituted, we get curves for each oxide which are straight and parallel below the aggregation temperatures, the slopes (increase of change of log10n per 100°C) being −0.056 (CaO), −0.055 (MgO), −0.018 (Al2O3) per per cent oxide substituted. For substitution of 1/2 molecule the slopes are −0.325 (CaO), −0.23 (MgO) and −0.18 (Al2O3) per 100°. At the aggregation temperature the change of log10n per per cent is a minimum, 0.03 to 0.06 for CaO, 0.12 for MgO, 0.07 for Al2O3. Evidence of Aggregation in Glasses, from Viscosity Measurements . The sharp bends in the plots of change of log10n due to substitution of an oxide for Na2O, suggest the beginning of molecular aggregation at these temperatures. These aggregation temperatures are close to the devitrification temperatures, but the effect on the viscosity curves cannot be due to actual devitrification since it does not change with time. Taking the aggregation temperatures as equal to devitrification temperatures, additional isotherms are roughly sketched into the equilibrium triangle of the system Na2O─CaO─SiO2. Change of Viscosity of Glass (4SiO2, 2Na2O) due to Substitution of B2O3 for SiO2 The change of log10n (from the results of English) is plotted as a function of temperature, and also the change of log10n per per cent B2O3. The curves are more complex than for the substitution for Na2O.
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