Topic

# Viscous liquid

About: Viscous liquid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10655 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 244865 citation(s). The topic is also known as: supercooled liquid & glassforming liquid.

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Abstract: A theory is developed for the propagation of stress waves in a porous elastic solid containing compressible viscous fluid. The emphasis of the present treatment is on materials where fluid and solid are of comparable densities as for instance in the case of water‐saturated rock. The paper denoted here as Part I is restricted to the lower frequency range where the assumption of Poiseuille flow is valid. The extension to the higher frequencies will be treated in Part II. It is found that the material may be described by four nondimensional parameters and a characteristic frequency. There are two dilatational waves and one rotational wave. The physical interpretation of the result is clarified by treating first the case where the fluid is frictionless. The case of a material containing viscous fluid is then developed and discussed numerically. Phase velocity dispersion curves and attenuation coefficients for the three types of waves are plotted as a function of the frequency for various combinations of the characteristic parameters.

6,715 citations

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TL;DR: The onset of a sharp change in ddT( is the Debye-Waller factor and T is temperature) in proteins, which is controversially indentified with the glass transition in liquids, is shown to be general for glass formers and observable in computer simulations of strong and fragile ionic liquids, where it proves to be close to the experimental glass transition temperature.

Abstract: Glasses can be formed by many routes. In some cases, distinct polyamorphic forms are found. The normal mode of glass formation is cooling of a viscous liquid. Liquid behavior during cooling is classified between "strong" and "fragile," and the three canonical characteristics of relaxing liquids are correlated through the fragility. Strong liquids become fragile liquids on compression. In some cases, such conversions occur during cooling by a weak first-order transition. This behavior can be related to the polymorphism in a glass state through a recent simple modification of the van der Waals model for tetrahedrally bonded liquids. The sudden loss of some liquid degrees of freedom through such first-order transitions is suggestive of the polyamorphic transition between native and denatured hydrated proteins, which can be interpreted as single-chain glass-forming polymers plasticized by water and cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The onset of a sharp change in d dT( is the Debye-Waller factor and T is temperature) in proteins, which is controversially indentified with the glass transition in liquids, is shown to be general for glass formers and observable in computer simulations of strong and fragile ionic liquids, where it proves to be close to the experimental glass transition temperature. The latter may originate in strong anharmonicity in modes ("bosons"), which permits the system to access multiple minima of its configuration space. These modes, the Kauzmann temperature T(K), and the fragility of the liquid, may thus be connected.

3,708 citations

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Abstract: In both physical and biological science, we are often concerned with the properties of a fluid, or plasma, in which small particles or corpuscles are suspended and carried about by the motion of the fluid. The presence of the particles will influence the properties of the suspension in bulk, and, in particular, its viscosity will be increased. The most complete mathematical treatment of the problem, from this point of view, has been that given by Einstein, who considered the case of spherical particles and gave a simple formula for the increase in the viscosity. We have extended this work to the case of particles of ellipsoidal shape. The second section of the paper is occupied with the requisite solution of the equations of motion of the fluid. The problem of the motion of a viscous fluid, due to an ellipsoid moving through it with a small velocity of translation in a direction parallel to one of its axes, has been solved by Oberbeck, and the corresponding problem for an ellipsoid rotating about one of its axes by Edwards. In both cases the equations of motion are approximated by neglecting the terms involving the squares of the velocities. It may be seen, a posteriori , that the condition for the validity of this approximation is that the product of the velocity of the ellipsoid by its linear dimensions shall be small compared with the “kinematic coefficient, of viscosity” of the fluid. In relation to our present problem, it will therefore be satisfied either for sufficiently slow motions, or for sufficiently small particles.

3,383 citations

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TL;DR: Current theoretical knowledge of the manner in which intermolecular forces give rise to complex behaviour in supercooled liquids and glasses is discussed.

Abstract: Glasses are disordered materials that lack the periodicity of crystals but behave mechanically like solids. The most common way of making a glass is by cooling a viscous liquid fast enough to avoid crystallization. Although this route to the vitreous state-supercooling-has been known for millennia, the molecular processes by which liquids acquire amorphous rigidity upon cooling are not fully understood. Here we discuss current theoretical knowledge of the manner in which intermolecular forces give rise to complex behaviour in supercooled liquids and glasses. An intriguing aspect of this behaviour is the apparent connection between dynamics and thermodynamics. The multidimensional potential energy surface as a function of particle coordinates (the energy landscape) offers a convenient viewpoint for the analysis and interpretation of supercooling and glass-formation phenomena. That much of this analysis is at present largely qualitative reflects the fact that precise computations of how viscous liquids sample their landscape have become possible only recently.

3,354 citations

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Abstract: When a viscous fluid filling the voids in a porous medium is driven forwards by the pressure of another driving fluid, the interface between them is liable to be unstable if the driving fluid is the less viscous of the two. This condition occurs in oil fields. To describe the normal modes of small disturbances from a plane interface and their rate of growth, it is necessary to know, or to assume one knows, the conditions which must be satisfied at the interface. The simplest assumption, that the fluids remain completely separated along a definite interface, leads to formulae which are analogous to known expressions developed by scientists working in the oil industry, and also analogous to expressions representing the instability of accelerated interfaces between fluids of different densities. In the latter case the instability develops into round-ended fingers of less dense fluid penetrating into the more dense one. Experiments in which a viscous fluid confined between closely spaced parallel sheets of glass, a Hele-Shaw cell, is driven out by a less viscous one reveal a similar state. The motion in a Hele-Shaw cell is mathematically analogous to two-dimensional flow in a porous medium.
Analysis which assumes continuity of pressure through the interface shows that a flow is possible in which equally spaced fingers advance steadily. The ratio λ = (width of finger)/(spacing of fingers) appears as the parameter in a singly infinite set of such motions, all of which appear equally possible. Experiments in which various fluids were forced into a narrow Hele-Shaw cell showed that single fingers can be produced, and that unless the flow is very slow λ = (width of finger)/(width of channel) is close to , so that behind the tips of the advancing fingers the widths of the two columns of fluid are equal. When λ = 1/2 the calculated form of the fingers is very close to that which is registered photographically in the Hele-Shaw cell, but at very slow speeds where the measured value of λ increased from 1/2 to the limit 1.0 as the speed decreased to zero, there were considerable differences. Assuming that these might be due to surface tension, experiments were made in which a fluid of small viscosity, air or water, displaced a much more viscous oil. It is to be expected in that case that λ would be a function of μU/T only, where μ is the viscosity, U the speed of advance and T the interfacial tension. This was verified using air as the less viscous fluid penetrating two oils of viscosities 0.30 and 4.5 poises.

2,493 citations