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Visual cryptography

About: Visual cryptography is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1724 publications have been published within this topic receiving 25300 citations.


Papers
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01 Jun 1994
TL;DR: In this paper, a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, is proposed, which is called k-out-of-n secret sharing.
Abstract: In this paper we consider a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations. The scheme is perfectly secure and very easy to implement. We extend it into a visual variant of the k out of n secret sharing problem, in which a dealer provides a transparency to each one of the n users; any k of them can see the image by stacking their transparencies, but any k-1 of them gain no information about it.

1,908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examines graph-based access structures, i.e., access structures in which any qualified set of participants contains at least an edge of a given graph whose vertices represent the participants of the scheme, and provides a novel technique for realizing threshold visual cryptography schemes.
Abstract: A visual cryptography scheme for a set P ofnparticipants is a method of encoding a secret imageSIintonshadow images called shares, where each participant in P receives one share. Certain qualified subsets of participants can “visually” recover the secret image, but other, forbidden, sets of participants have no information (in an information-theoretic sense) onSI. A “visual” recovery for a setX?P consists of xeroxing the shares given to the participants inXonto transparencies, and then stacking them. The participants in a qualified setXwill be able to see the secret image without any knowledge of cryptography and without performing any cryptographic computation. In this paper we propose two techniques for constructing visual cryptography schemes for general access structures. We analyze the structure of visual cryptography schemes and we prove bounds on the size of the shares distributed to the participants in the scheme. We provide a novel technique for realizingkout ofnthreshold visual cryptography schemes. Our construction forkout ofnvisual cryptography schemes is better with respect to pixel expansion than the one proposed by M. Naor and A. Shamir (Visual cryptography,in“Advances in Cryptology?Eurocrypt '94” CA. De Santis, Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 950, pp. 1?12, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995) and for the case of 2 out ofnis the best possible. Finally, we consider graph-based access structures, i.e., access structures in which any qualified set of participants contains at least an edge of a given graph whose vertices represent the participants of the scheme.

639 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three methods for visual cryptography of gray-level and color images based on past studies in black-and-white visual cryptography, the halftone technology, and the color decomposition method are proposed.

463 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The frequency of white pixels is used to show the contrast of the recovered image and the scheme is nonexpansible and can be easily implemented on a basis of conventional VSS scheme.

426 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extended visual cryptography scheme, for an access structure (ΓQual,ΓForb) on a set of n participants, is a technique to encode n images in such a way that when the authors stack together the transparencies associated to participants in any set X∈�Qual they get the secret message with no trace of the original images, but any X∈Γ forb has no information on the shared image.

423 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202334
202291
202158
202064
201982
2018132