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Visual cryptography

About: Visual cryptography is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1724 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 25300 citation(s).


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01 Jun 1994
Abstract: In this paper we consider a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations. The scheme is perfectly secure and very easy to implement. We extend it into a visual variant of the k out of n secret sharing problem, in which a dealer provides a transparency to each one of the n users; any k of them can see the image by stacking their transparencies, but any k-1 of them gain no information about it.

1,907 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examines graph-based access structures, i.e., access structures in which any qualified set of participants contains at least an edge of a given graph whose vertices represent the participants of the scheme, and provides a novel technique for realizing threshold visual cryptography schemes.
Abstract: A visual cryptography scheme for a set P ofnparticipants is a method of encoding a secret imageSIintonshadow images called shares, where each participant in P receives one share. Certain qualified subsets of participants can “visually” recover the secret image, but other, forbidden, sets of participants have no information (in an information-theoretic sense) onSI. A “visual” recovery for a setX?P consists of xeroxing the shares given to the participants inXonto transparencies, and then stacking them. The participants in a qualified setXwill be able to see the secret image without any knowledge of cryptography and without performing any cryptographic computation. In this paper we propose two techniques for constructing visual cryptography schemes for general access structures. We analyze the structure of visual cryptography schemes and we prove bounds on the size of the shares distributed to the participants in the scheme. We provide a novel technique for realizingkout ofnthreshold visual cryptography schemes. Our construction forkout ofnvisual cryptography schemes is better with respect to pixel expansion than the one proposed by M. Naor and A. Shamir (Visual cryptography,in“Advances in Cryptology?Eurocrypt '94” CA. De Santis, Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 950, pp. 1?12, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995) and for the case of 2 out ofnis the best possible. Finally, we consider graph-based access structures, i.e., access structures in which any qualified set of participants contains at least an edge of a given graph whose vertices represent the participants of the scheme.

616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three methods for visual cryptography of gray-level and color images based on past studies in black-and-white visual cryptography, the halftone technology, and the color decomposition method are proposed.
Abstract: Visual cryptography, an emerging cryptography technology, uses the characteristics of human vision to decrypt encrypted images. It needs neither cryptography knowledge nor complex computation. For security concerns, it also ensures that hackers cannot perceive any clues about a secret image from individual cover images. Since Naor and Shamir proposed the basic model of visual cryptography, researchers have published many related studies. Most of these studies, however, concentrate on binary images; few of them proposed methods for processing gray-level and color images. This paper proposes three methods for visual cryptography of gray-level and color images based on past studies in black-and-white visual cryptography, the halftone technology, and the color decomposition method. Our methods not only retain the advantages of black-and-white visual cryptography, which exploits the human visual system to decrypt secret images without computation, but also have the backward compatibility with the previous results in black-and-white visual cryptography, such as the t out of n threshold scheme, and can be applied to gray-level and color images easily.

441 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The frequency of white pixels is used to show the contrast of the recovered image and the scheme is nonexpansible and can be easily implemented on a basis of conventional VSS scheme.
Abstract: Visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme is a perfect secure method that protects a secret image by breaking it into shadow images (called shadows). Unlike other threshold schemes, VSS scheme can be easily decoded by the human visual system without the knowledge of cryptography and cryptographic computations. However, the size of shadow images (i.e., the number of columns of the black and white matrices in VSS scheme [Naor, Shamir, Visual cryptography, Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT'94, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 950, Springer-Verlag, 1995, p. 1]) will be expanded. Most recent papers about VSS schemes are dedicated to get a higher contrast or a smaller shadow size.In this paper, we use the frequency of white pixels to show the contrast of the recovered image. Our scheme is nonexpansible and can be easily implemented on a basis of conventional VSS scheme. The term non-expansible means that the sizes of the original image and shadows are the same.

400 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extended visual cryptography scheme, for an access structure (ΓQual,ΓForb) on a set of n participants, is a technique to encode n images in such a way that when the authors stack together the transparencies associated to participants in any set X∈�Qual they get the secret message with no trace of the original images, but any X∈Γ forb has no information on the shared image.
Abstract: An extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS), for an access structure (ΓQual,ΓForb) on a set of n participants, is a technique to encode n images in such a way that when we stack together the transparencies associated to participants in any set X∈ΓQual we get the secret message with no trace of the original images, but any X∈ΓForb has no information on the shared image. Moreover, after the original images are encoded they are still meaningful, that is, any user will recognize the image on his transparency. The main contributions of this paper are the following: • A trade-off between the contrast of the reconstructed image and the contrast of the image on each transparency for (k,k)-threshold EVCS (in a (k,k)-threshold EVCS the image is visible if and only if k transparencies are stacked together). This yields a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of (k,k)-threshold EVCS for the values of such contrasts. In case a scheme exists we explicitly construct it. • A general technique to implement EVCS, which uses hypergraph colourings. This technique yields (k,k)-threshold EVCS which are optimal with respect to the pixel expansion. Finally, we discuss some applications of this technique to various interesting classes of access structures by using relevant results from the theory of hypergraph colourings.

394 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20224
202158
202064
201982
2018132
2017139