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About: Voltage is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 296395 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1755443 citation(s). The topic is also known as: electromotive force & U. more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A formula is derived for the electric tunnel effect through a potential barrier of arbitrary shape existing in a thin insulating film. The formula is applied to a rectangular barrier with and without image forces. In the image force problem, the true image potential is considered and compared to the approximate parabolic solution derived by Holm and Kirschstein. The anomalies associated with Holm's expression for the intermediate voltage characteristic are resolved. The effect of the dielectric constant of the insulating film is discussed in detail, and it is shown that this constant affects the temperature dependence of the J‐V characteristic of a tunnel junction. more

3,434 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The conventional reactive power in single-phase or three- phase circuits has been defined on the basis of the average value concept for sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms in steady states. The instantaneous reactive power in three-phase circuits is defined on the basis of the instantaneous value concept for arbitrary voltage and current waveforms, including transient states. A new instantaneous reactive power compensator comprising switching devices is proposed which requires practically no energy storage components. more

3,182 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jih-Sheng Lai1, Fang Zheng PengInstitutions (1)
08 Oct 1995-
TL;DR: This paper presents three multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate DC sources. more

Abstract: Multilevel voltage source converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for high-power applications. The multilevel voltage source converters typically synthesize the staircase voltage wave from several levels of DC capacitor voltages. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. The techniques to balance the voltage between different levels normally involve voltage clamping or capacitor charge control. There are several ways of implementing voltage balance in multilevel converters. Without considering the traditional magnetic coupled converters, this paper presents three recently developed multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate DC sources. The operating principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters are discussed. more

3,134 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The disintegration of drops in strong electric fields is believed to play an important part in the formation of thunderstorms, at least in those parts of them where no ice crystals are present. Zeleny showed experimentally that disintegration begins as a hydrodynamical instability, but his ideas about the mechanics of the situation rest on the implicit assumption that instability occurs when the internal pressure is the same as that outside the drop. It is shown that this assumption is false and that instability of an elongated drop would not occur unless a pressure difference existed. When this error is corrected it is found that a drop, elongated by an electric field, becomes unstable when its length is 1.9 times its equatorial diameter, and the calculated critical electric field agrees with laboratory experiments to within 1%. When the drop becomes unstable the ends develop obtuse-angled conical points from which axial jets are projected but the stability calculations give no indication of the mechanics of this process. It is shown theoretically that a conical interface between two fluids can exist in equilibrium in an electric field, but only when the cone has a semi-vertical angle 49.3$^\circ$. Apparatus was constructed for producing the necessary field, and photographs show that conical oil/water interfaces and soap films can be produced at the caloulated voltage and that their semi-vertical angles are very close to 49.3$^\circ$. The photographs give an indication of how the axial jets are produced but no complete analytical description of the process is attempted. more

2,792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2012-Nano Energy
Abstract: Charges induced in triboelectric process are usually referred as a negative effect either in scientific research or technological applications, and they are wasted energy in many cases. Here, we demonstrate a simple, low cost and effective approach of using the charging process in friction to convert mechanical energy into electric power for driving small electronics. The triboelectric generator (TEG) is fabricated by stacking two polymer sheets made of materials having distinctly different triboelectric characteristics, with metal films deposited on the top and bottom of the assembled structure. Once subjected to mechanical deformation, a friction between the two films, owing to the nano-scale surface roughness, generates equal amount but opposite signs of charges at two sides. Thus, a triboelectric potential layer is formed at the interface region, which serves as a charge “pump” for driving the flow of electrons in the external load if there is a variation in the capacitance of the system. Such a flexible polymer TEG gives an output voltage of up to 3.3 V at a power density of ∼10.4 mW/cm 3 . TEGs have the potential of harvesting energy from human activities, rotating tires, ocean waves, mechanical vibration and more, with great applications in self-powered systems for personal electronics, environmental monitoring, medical science and even large-scale power. more

2,666 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Bhim Singh

187 papers, 1.5K citations

Ebrahim Babaei

99 papers, 2.6K citations

Frede Blaabjerg

71 papers, 2.5K citations

Johann W. Kolar

70 papers, 2.1K citations

Patrick Wheeler

54 papers, 614 citations