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Voltage droop

About: Voltage droop is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14594 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 206342 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009-
TL;DR: The hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs is presented and results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

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Abstract: DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to microgrids. The hierarchical control proposed consist of three levels: i) the primary control is based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) the secondary control allows restoring the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

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3,466 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
K. De Brabandere1, B. Bolsens1, J. Van den Keybus1, Achim Woyte1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, a new control method for the parallel operation of inverters operating in an island grid or connected to an infinite bus is described. Frequency and voltage control, including mitigation of voltage harmonics, are achieved without the need for any common control circuitry or communication between inverters. Each inverter supplies a current that is the result of the voltage difference between a reference ac voltage source and the grid voltage across a virtual complex impedance. The reference ac voltage source is synchronized with the grid, with a phase shift, depending on the difference between rated and actual grid frequency. A detailed analysis shows that this approach has a superior behavior compared to existing methods, regarding the mitigation of voltage harmonics, short-circuit behavior and the effectiveness of the frequency and voltage control, as it takes the R to X line impedance ratio into account. Experiments show the behavior of the method for an inverter feeding a highly nonlinear load and during the connection of two parallel inverters in operation.

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1,334 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The efficiency droop in GaInN∕GaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes is investigated. Measurements show that the efficiency droop, occurring under high injection conditions, is unrelated to junction temperature. Furthermore, the photoluminescence output as a function of excitation power shows no droop, indicating that the droop is not related to MQW efficiency but rather to the recombination of carriers outside the MQW region. Simulations show that polarization fields in the MQW and electron blocking layer enable the escape of electrons from the MQW region and thus are the physical origin of the droop. It is shown that through the use of proper quaternary AlGaInN compositions, polarization effects are reduced, thereby minimizing droop and improving efficiency.

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1,193 citations


4


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper addresses the low-frequency relative stability problem in paralleled inverter-based distributed generation (DG) units in microgrids. In the sense of the small-signal dynamics of a microgrid, it can be shown that as the demanded power of each inverter changes, the low-frequency modes of the power sharing dynamics drift to new locations and the relative stability is remarkably affected, and eventually, instability can be yielded. To preserve the power sharing stability, an adaptive decentralized droop controller of paralleled inverter-based DG units is presented in this paper. The proposed power sharing strategy is based on the static droop characteristics combined with an adaptive transient droop function. Unlike conventional droop controllers, which yield 1-DOF tunable controller, the proposed droop controller yields 2-DOF tunable controller. Subsequently, the dynamic performance of the power sharing mechanism can be adjusted, without affecting the static droop gain, to damp the oscillatory modes of the power sharing controller. To account for the power modes immigration at different loading conditions, the transient droop gains are adaptively scheduled via small-signal analysis of the power sharing mechanism along the loading trajectory of each DG unit to yield the desired transient and steady-state response. The gain adaptation scheme utilizes the filtered active and reactive powers as indices; therefore, a stable and smooth power injection performance can be obtained at different loading conditions. The adaptive nature of the proposed controller ensures active damping of power oscillations at different operating conditions, and yields a stable and robust performance of the paralleled inverter system.

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1,015 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper deals with the design of the output impedance of uninterruptible power system (UPS) inverters with parallel-connection capability, and proposes novel control loops to achieve both stable output impedance and proper power balance.

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Abstract: This paper deals with the design of the output impedance of uninterruptible power system (UPS) inverters with parallel-connection capability. In order to avoid the need for any communication among modules, the power-sharing control loops are based on the P/Q droop method. Since in these systems the power-sharing accuracy is highly sensitive to the inverters output impedance, novel control loops to achieve both stable output impedance and proper power balance are proposed. In this sense, a novel wireless controller is designed by using three nested loops: 1) the inner loop is performed by using feedback linearization control techniques, providing a good quality output voltage waveform; 2) the intermediate loop enforces the output impedance of the inverter, achieving good harmonic power sharing while maintaining low output voltage total harmonic distortion; and 3) the outer loop calculates the output active and reactive powers and adjusts the output impedance value and the output voltage frequency during the load transients, obtaining excellent power sharing without deviations in either the frequency or the amplitude of the output voltage. Simulation and experimental results are reported from a parallel-connected UPS system sharing linear and nonlinear loads.

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965 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202226
2021642
2020917
2019932
2018909
2017900

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Josep M. Guerrero

246 papers, 22.4K citations

Juan C. Vasquez

107 papers, 12.7K citations

Jinjun Liu

45 papers, 479 citations

Frede Blaabjerg

41 papers, 1.3K citations

Arindam Ghosh

36 papers, 1.4K citations