Topic

# Voltage optimisation

About: Voltage optimisation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13831 publications have been published within this topic receiving 201336 citations.

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01 Oct 1995

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a power quality evaluation procedure for the purpose of measuring the power quality of a power supply. But, they do not define the specific classes of power quality problems.

Abstract: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION What is Power Quality? Power Quality -- Voltage Quality Why Are We Concerned About Power Quality? The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Who Should Use This Book Overview of the Contents CHAPTER 2: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Need for a Consistent Vocabulary General Classes of Power Quality Problems Transients Long-Duration Voltage Variations Short-Duration Voltage Variations Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion Voltage Fluctuation Power Frequency Variations Power Quality Terms Ambiguous Terms CBEMA and ITI Curves References CHAPTER 3: VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS Sources of Sags and Interruptions Estimating Voltage Sag Performance Fundamental Principles of Protection Solutions at the End-User Level Evaluating the Economics of Different Ride-Through Alternatives Motor-Starting Sags Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues References CHAPTER 4: TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES Sources of Transient Overvoltages Principles of Overvoltage Protection Devices for Overvoltage Protection Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients Utility System Lightning Protection Managing Ferroresonance Switching Transient Problems with Loads Computer Tools for Transients Analysis References CHAPTER 5: FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Voltage versus Current Distortion Harmonics versus Transients Harmonic Indexes Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads Harmonic Sources from Industrial Loads Locating Harmonic Sources System Response Characteristics Effects of Harmonic Distortion Interharmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 6: APPLIED HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Evaluations Principles for Controlling Harmonics Where to Control Harmonics Harmonic Studies Devices for Controlling Harmonic Distortion Harmonic Filter Design: A Case Study Case Studies Standards of Harmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 7: LONG-DURATION VOLTAGE VARIATIONS Principles of Regulating the Voltage Devices for Voltage Regulation Utility Voltage Regulator Application Capacitors for Voltage Regulation End-User Capacitor Application Regulating Utility Voltage with Distributed Resources Flicker References Bibliography CHAPTER 8: POWER QUALITY BENCHMARKING Introduction Benchmarking Process RMS Voltage Variation Indices Harmonics Indices Power Quality Contracts Power Quality Insurance Power Quality State Estimation Including Power Quality in Distribution Planning References Bibliography CHAPTER 9: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER QUALITY Resurgence of DG DG Technologies Interface to the Utility System Power Quality Issues Operating Conflicts DG on Distribution Networks Siting DGDistributed Generation Interconnection Standards Summary References Bibliography CHAPTER 10: WIRING AND GROUNDING Resources Definitions Reasons for Grounding Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems Bibliography CHAPTER 11: POWER QUALITY MONITORING Monitoring Considerations Historical Perspective of Power Quality Measuring Instruments Power Quality Measurement Equipment Assessment of Power Quality Measurement Data Application of Intelligent Systems Power Quality Monitoring Standards References Index INDEX

1,991 citations

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TL;DR: By replacing the standard insulator with a ferroelectric insulator of the right thickness it should be possible to implement a step-up voltage transformer that will amplify the gate voltage thus leading to values of S lower than 60 mV/decade and enabling low voltage/low power operation.

Abstract: It is well-known that conventional field effect transistors (FETs) require a change in the channel potential of at least 60 mV at 300 K to effect a change in the current by a factor of 10, and this minimum subthreshold slope S puts a fundamental lower limit on the operating voltage and hence the power dissipation in standard FET-based switches. Here, we suggest that by replacing the standard insulator with a ferroelectric insulator of the right thickness it should be possible to implement a step-up voltage transformer that will amplify the gate voltage thus leading to values of S lower than 60 mV/decade and enabling low voltage/low power operation. The voltage transformer action can be understood intuitively as the result of an effective negative capacitance provided by the ferroelectric capacitor that arises from an internal positive feedback that in principle could be obtained from other microscopic mechanisms as well. Unlike other proposals to reduce S, this involves no change in the basic physics of the FET and thus does not affect its current drive or impose other restrictions.

1,722 citations

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TL;DR: A practical method is given for solving the power flow problem with control variables such as real and reactive power and transformer ratios automatically adjusted to minimize instantaneous costs or losses by Newton's method, a gradient adjustment algorithm for obtaining the minimum and penalty functions to account for dependent constraints.

Abstract: A practical method is given for solving the power flow problem with control variables such as real and reactive power and transformer ratios automatically adjusted to minimize instantaneous costs or losses. The solution is feasible with respect to constraints on control variables and dependent variables such as load voltages, reactive sources, and tie line power angles. The method is based on power flow solution by Newton's method, a gradient adjustment algorithm for obtaining the minimum and penalty functions to account for dependent constraints. A test program solves problems of 500 nodes. Only a small extension of the power flow program is required to implement the method.

1,575 citations

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01 Dec 1993

TL;DR: In this article, a clear, in-depth explanation of voltage stability, covering both transient and longer-term phenomena and presenting proven solutions to instability problems, is presented, along with planning and operating guidelines, computer methods for power flow and dynamic simulation, and descriptions of actual voltage instability incidents.

Abstract: Voltage stability is a major concern in the planning and operation of electric power systems. This book provides a clear, in-depth explanation of voltage stability, covering both transient and longer-term phenomena and presenting proven solutions to instability problems. The book describes equipment characteristics for transmission, generation, and distribution/load subsystems of a power system, together with methods for the modelling of equipment. Readers will find static and dynamic computer simulation examples for small equivalent power systems and for a very large power system, plus an account of voltage stability associated with HVDC links. They will also get helpful planning and operating guidelines, computer methods for power flow and dynamic simulation, and descriptions of actual voltage instability incidents.

1,355 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (volt/VAr control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA) is presented.

Abstract: Summary form only given, as follows. This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (volt/VAr control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA). VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The proposed method expands the original PSO to handle a MINLP and determines an online VVC strategy with continuous and discrete control variables such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) operating values of generators, tap positions of on-load tap changer (OLTC) of transformers, and the number of reactive power compensation equipment. The method considers voltage security using a continuation power now and a contingency analysis technique. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated and compared with reactive tabu search (RTS) and the enumeration method on practical power system models with promising results.

1,340 citations