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Voltage regulation

About: Voltage regulation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 35375 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 472949 citation(s).

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01 Oct 1995
Abstract: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION What is Power Quality? Power Quality -- Voltage Quality Why Are We Concerned About Power Quality? The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Who Should Use This Book Overview of the Contents CHAPTER 2: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Need for a Consistent Vocabulary General Classes of Power Quality Problems Transients Long-Duration Voltage Variations Short-Duration Voltage Variations Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion Voltage Fluctuation Power Frequency Variations Power Quality Terms Ambiguous Terms CBEMA and ITI Curves References CHAPTER 3: VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS Sources of Sags and Interruptions Estimating Voltage Sag Performance Fundamental Principles of Protection Solutions at the End-User Level Evaluating the Economics of Different Ride-Through Alternatives Motor-Starting Sags Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues References CHAPTER 4: TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES Sources of Transient Overvoltages Principles of Overvoltage Protection Devices for Overvoltage Protection Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients Utility System Lightning Protection Managing Ferroresonance Switching Transient Problems with Loads Computer Tools for Transients Analysis References CHAPTER 5: FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Voltage versus Current Distortion Harmonics versus Transients Harmonic Indexes Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads Harmonic Sources from Industrial Loads Locating Harmonic Sources System Response Characteristics Effects of Harmonic Distortion Interharmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 6: APPLIED HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Evaluations Principles for Controlling Harmonics Where to Control Harmonics Harmonic Studies Devices for Controlling Harmonic Distortion Harmonic Filter Design: A Case Study Case Studies Standards of Harmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 7: LONG-DURATION VOLTAGE VARIATIONS Principles of Regulating the Voltage Devices for Voltage Regulation Utility Voltage Regulator Application Capacitors for Voltage Regulation End-User Capacitor Application Regulating Utility Voltage with Distributed Resources Flicker References Bibliography CHAPTER 8: POWER QUALITY BENCHMARKING Introduction Benchmarking Process RMS Voltage Variation Indices Harmonics Indices Power Quality Contracts Power Quality Insurance Power Quality State Estimation Including Power Quality in Distribution Planning References Bibliography CHAPTER 9: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER QUALITY Resurgence of DG DG Technologies Interface to the Utility System Power Quality Issues Operating Conflicts DG on Distribution Networks Siting DGDistributed Generation Interconnection Standards Summary References Bibliography CHAPTER 10: WIRING AND GROUNDING Resources Definitions Reasons for Grounding Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems Bibliography CHAPTER 11: POWER QUALITY MONITORING Monitoring Considerations Historical Perspective of Power Quality Measuring Instruments Power Quality Measurement Equipment Assessment of Power Quality Measurement Data Application of Intelligent Systems Power Quality Monitoring Standards References Index INDEX

1,934 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Attention has been paid to active filters for power conditioning which provide the following multifunctions: reactive power compensation; harmonic compensation; flicker/imbalance compensation; and voltage regulation. Active filters in a range of 50 kVA-60 MVA have been practically installed in Japan. In the near future, the term "active filters" will have a much wider meaning than it did in the 1970s. For instance, active filters intended for harmonic solutions are expanding their functions from harmonic compensation of nonlinear loads into harmonic isolation between utilities and consumers, and harmonic damping throughout power distribution systems. This paper presents the present status of active filters based on state-of-the-art power electronics technology, and their future prospects and directions toward the 21st Century, including the personal views and expectations of the author.

1,645 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The problem of capacitor placement on a radial distribution system is formulated and a solution algorithm is proposed. The location, type, and size of capacitors, voltage constraints, and load variations are considered. The objective of capacitor placement is peak power and energy loss reduction, taking into account the cost of the capacitors. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem. The power flows in the system are explicitly represented, and the voltage constraints are incorporated. A solution method has been implemented that decomposes the problem into a master problem and a slave problem. The master problem is used to determine the location of the capacitors. The slave problem is used by the master problem to determine the type and size of the capacitors placed on the system. In solving the slave problem, and efficient phase I-phase II algorithm is used. >

1,610 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper addresses real and reactive power management strategies of electronically interfaced distributed generation (DG) units in the context of a multiple-DG microgrid system. The emphasis is primarily on electronically interfaced DG (EI-DG) units. DG controls and power management strategies are based on locally measured signals without communications. Based on the reactive power controls adopted, three power management strategies are identified and investigated. These strategies are based on 1) voltage-droop characteristic, 2) voltage regulation, and 3) load reactive power compensation. The real power of each DG unit is controlled based on a frequency-droop characteristic and a complimentary frequency restoration strategy. A systematic approach to develop a small-signal dynamic model of a multiple-DG microgrid, including real and reactive power management strategies, is also presented. The microgrid eigen structure, based on the developed model, is used to 1) investigate the microgrid dynamic behavior, 2) select control parameters of DG units, and 3) incorporate power management strategies in the DG controllers. The model is also used to investigate sensitivity of the design to changes of parameters and operating point and to optimize performance of the microgrid system. The results are used to discuss applications of the proposed power management strategies under various microgrid operating conditions

1,446 citations

31 Aug 2001
Abstract: Introduction to Distribution Systems The Distribution System Distribution Substations Radial Feeders Distribution Feeder Map Distribution Feeder Electrical Characteristics Summary The Nature of Loads Definitions Individual Customer Load Distribution Transformer Loading Feeder Load Summary Approximate Method of Analysis Voltage Drop Line Impedance K Factors Uniformly Distributed Loads Lumping Loads in Geometric Configurations Summary References Series Impedance of Overhead and Underground Lines Series Impedance of Overhead Lines Series Impedance of Underground Lines Series Impedances of Parallel Lines Summary References Shunt Admittance of Overhead and Underground Lines General Voltage Drop Equation Overhead Lines Concentric Neutral Cable Underground Lines Tape-Shielded Cable Underground Lines Sequence Admittance The Shunt Admittance of Parallel Underground Lines Summary References Distribution System Line Models Exact Line Segment Model The Modified Line Model The Approximate Line Segment Model The General Matrices for Parallel Lines Summary References Voltage Regulation Standard Voltage Ratings Two-Winding Transformer Theory Two-Winding Autotransformer Step-Voltage Regulators Summary References Three-Phase Transformer Models Introduction Generalized Matrices The Delta-Grounded Wye Step-Down Connection The Ungrounded Wye-Delta Step-Down Connection The Grounded Wye--Grounded Wye Connection The Delta-Delta Connection Open Wye--Open Delta Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Summary Load Models Wye Connected Loads Delta Connected Loads Two-Phase and Single-Phase Loads Shunt Capacitors The Three-Phase Induction Machine Summary References Distribution Feeder Analysis Power-Flow Analysis Short-Circuit Studies Summary References Center-Tapped Transformers and Secondaries Center-Tapped Single-Phase Transformer Model Ungrounded Wye-Delta Transformer Bank Leading Open Wye--Open Delta Transformer Connection Lagging Open Wye--Open Delta Connection Four-Wire Secondary Putting It All Together Summary Reference Appendix A Appendix B Index

1,442 citations

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