Topic

# Voltage regulator

About: Voltage regulator is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 33536 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 350859 citation(s).

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01 Oct 1995

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a power quality evaluation procedure for the purpose of measuring the power quality of a power supply. But, they do not define the specific classes of power quality problems.

Abstract: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION What is Power Quality? Power Quality -- Voltage Quality Why Are We Concerned About Power Quality? The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Who Should Use This Book Overview of the Contents CHAPTER 2: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Need for a Consistent Vocabulary General Classes of Power Quality Problems Transients Long-Duration Voltage Variations Short-Duration Voltage Variations Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion Voltage Fluctuation Power Frequency Variations Power Quality Terms Ambiguous Terms CBEMA and ITI Curves References CHAPTER 3: VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS Sources of Sags and Interruptions Estimating Voltage Sag Performance Fundamental Principles of Protection Solutions at the End-User Level Evaluating the Economics of Different Ride-Through Alternatives Motor-Starting Sags Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues References CHAPTER 4: TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES Sources of Transient Overvoltages Principles of Overvoltage Protection Devices for Overvoltage Protection Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients Utility System Lightning Protection Managing Ferroresonance Switching Transient Problems with Loads Computer Tools for Transients Analysis References CHAPTER 5: FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Voltage versus Current Distortion Harmonics versus Transients Harmonic Indexes Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads Harmonic Sources from Industrial Loads Locating Harmonic Sources System Response Characteristics Effects of Harmonic Distortion Interharmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 6: APPLIED HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Evaluations Principles for Controlling Harmonics Where to Control Harmonics Harmonic Studies Devices for Controlling Harmonic Distortion Harmonic Filter Design: A Case Study Case Studies Standards of Harmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 7: LONG-DURATION VOLTAGE VARIATIONS Principles of Regulating the Voltage Devices for Voltage Regulation Utility Voltage Regulator Application Capacitors for Voltage Regulation End-User Capacitor Application Regulating Utility Voltage with Distributed Resources Flicker References Bibliography CHAPTER 8: POWER QUALITY BENCHMARKING Introduction Benchmarking Process RMS Voltage Variation Indices Harmonics Indices Power Quality Contracts Power Quality Insurance Power Quality State Estimation Including Power Quality in Distribution Planning References Bibliography CHAPTER 9: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER QUALITY Resurgence of DG DG Technologies Interface to the Utility System Power Quality Issues Operating Conflicts DG on Distribution Networks Siting DGDistributed Generation Interconnection Standards Summary References Bibliography CHAPTER 10: WIRING AND GROUNDING Resources Definitions Reasons for Grounding Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems Bibliography CHAPTER 11: POWER QUALITY MONITORING Monitoring Considerations Historical Perspective of Power Quality Measuring Instruments Power Quality Measurement Equipment Assessment of Power Quality Measurement Data Application of Intelligent Systems Power Quality Monitoring Standards References Index INDEX

1,934 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new control method for the parallel operation of inverters operating in an island grid or connected to an infinite bus is described, where each inverter supplies a current that is the result of the voltage difference between a reference ac voltage source and the grid voltage across a virtual complex impedance.

Abstract: In this paper, a new control method for the parallel operation of inverters operating in an island grid or connected to an infinite bus is described. Frequency and voltage control, including mitigation of voltage harmonics, are achieved without the need for any common control circuitry or communication between inverters. Each inverter supplies a current that is the result of the voltage difference between a reference ac voltage source and the grid voltage across a virtual complex impedance. The reference ac voltage source is synchronized with the grid, with a phase shift, depending on the difference between rated and actual grid frequency. A detailed analysis shows that this approach has a superior behavior compared to existing methods, regarding the mitigation of voltage harmonics, short-circuit behavior and the effectiveness of the frequency and voltage control, as it takes the R to X line impedance ratio into account. Experiments show the behavior of the method for an inverter feeding a highly nonlinear load and during the connection of two parallel inverters in operation.

1,334 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (volt/VAr control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA) is presented.

Abstract: Summary form only given, as follows. This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for reactive power and voltage control (volt/VAr control: VVC) considering voltage security assessment (VSA). VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The proposed method expands the original PSO to handle a MINLP and determines an online VVC strategy with continuous and discrete control variables such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) operating values of generators, tap positions of on-load tap changer (OLTC) of transformers, and the number of reactive power compensation equipment. The method considers voltage security using a continuation power now and a contingency analysis technique. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated and compared with reactive tabu search (RTS) and the enumeration method on practical power system models with promising results.

1,281 citations

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27 Feb 2002

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comparison of different SVC controllers for power transmission networks with respect to their performance in terms of the number of SVC inputs and outputs, as well as the frequency of the SVC outputs.

Abstract: 1. Introduction. 1.1 Background. 1.2 Electrical Transmission Networks. 1.3 Conventional Control Mechanisms. 1.4 Flexible ac Transmission Systems (FACTS). 1.5 Emerging Transmission Networks. 2. Reactor--Power Control in Electrical Power Transmission Systems. 2.1 Reacrive Power. 2.2 Uncompensated Transmission Lines. 2.3 Passive Compensation. 2.4 Summary. 3. Principles of Conventional Reactive--Power Compensators. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Synchronous Condensers. 3.3 The Saturated Reactor (SR). 3.4 The Thyristor--Controlled Reactor (TCR). 3.5 The Thyristor--Controlled Transformer (TCT). 3.6 The Fixed Capacitor--Thyristor--Controlled Reactor (FC--TCR). 3.7 The Mechanically Switched Capacitor--Thristor--Controlled Reactor (MSC--TCR). 3.8 The Thyristor--Switched capacitor and Reactor. 3.9 The Thyristor--Switched capacitor--Thyristor--Controlled Reactor (TSC--TCR). 3.10 A Comparison of Different SVCs. 3.11 Summary. 4. SVC Control Components and Models. 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Measurement Systems. 4.3 The Voltage Regulator. 4.4 Gate--Pulse Generation. 4.5 The Synchronizing System. 4.6 Additional Control and Protection Functions. 4.7 Modeling of SVC for Power--System Studies. 4.8 Summary. 5. Conceepts of SVC Voltage Control. 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Voltage Control. 5.3 Effect of Network Resonances on the Controller Response. 5.4 The 2nd Harmonic Interaction Between the SVC and ac Network. 5.5 Application of the SVC to Series--Compensated ac Systems. 5.6 3rd Harmonic Distortion. 5.7 Voltage--Controlled Design Studies. 5.8 Summary. 6. Applications. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Increase in Steady--State Power--Transfer Capacity. 6.3 Enhancement of Transient Stability. 6.4 Augmentation of Power--System Damping. 6.5 SVC Mitigation of Subsychronous Resonance (SSR). 6.6 Prevention of Voltage Instability. 6.7 Improvement of HVDC Link Performance. 6.8 Summary. 7. The Thyristor--Controlled SeriesCapacitor (TCSC). 7.1 Series Compensation. 7.2 The TCSC Controller. 7.3 Operation of the TCSC. 7.4 The TSSC. 7.5 Analysis of the TCSC. 7.6 Capability Characteristics. 7.7 Harmonic Performance. 7.8 Losses. 7.9 Response of the TCSC. 7.10 Modeling of the TCSC. 7.11 Summary. 8. TCSC Applications. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Open--Loop Control. 8.3 Closed--Loop Control. 8.4 Improvement of the System--Stability Limit. 8.5 Enhancement of System Damping. 8.6 Subsynchronous Resonanace (SSR) Mitigation. 8.7 Voltage--Collapse Prevention. 8.8 TCSC Installations. 8.9 Summary. 9. Coordination of FACTS Controllers. 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Controller Interactions. 9.3 SVC--SVC Interaction. 9.4 SVC--HVDC Interaction. 9.5 SVC--TCSC Interaction. 9.6 TCSC--TCSC Interaction. 9.7 Performance Criteria for Damping--Controller Design. 9.8 Coordination of Multiple Controllers Using Linear--Control Techniques. 9.9 Coordination of Multiple Controllers using Nonlinear--Control Techniques. 9.10 Summary. 10. Emerging FACTS Controllers. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 The STATCOM. 10.3 THE SSSC. 10.4 The UPFC. 10.5 Comparative Evaluation of Different FACTS Controllers. 10.6 Future Direction of FACTS Technology. 10.7 Summary. Appendix A. Design of an SVC Voltage Regulator. A.1 Study System. A.2 Method of System Gain. A.3 Elgen Value Analysis. A.4 Simulator Studies. A.5 A Comparison of Physical Simulator results With Analytical and Digital Simulator Results Using Linearized Models. Appendix B. Transient--Stability Enhancement in a Midpoint SVC--Compensated SMIB System. Appendix C. Approximate Multimodal decomposition Method for the Design of FACTS Controllers. C.1 Introduction. C.2 Modal Analysis of the ith Swing Mode, C.3 Implications of Different Transfer Functions. C.4 Design of the Damping Controller. Appendix D. FACTS Terms and Definitions. Index.

927 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the frequency and rate-of-change of frequency at the bus can also be determined from the positive sequence voltage phase angle, and the theoretical basis of these computations and results of experiments performed in the AEP power system simulation laboratory are also outlined.

Abstract: With the advent of Substation Computer Systems dedicated to protection, control and data logging functions in a Substation, it becomes possible to develop new applications which can utilize the processing power available within the substation. The microcomputer based Symmetrical Component Distance Relay (SCDR) described in the references cited at the end of this paper possesses certain characteristics which facilitate real-time monitoring of positive sequence voltage phasor at the local power system bus. With a regression analysis the frequency and rate-of-change of frequency at the bus can also be determined from the positive sequence voltage phase angle. This paper describes the theoretical basis of these computations and describes results of experiments performed in the AEP power system simulation laboratory. Plans for future field tests on the AEP system are also outlined.

885 citations