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Voltage sag

About: Voltage sag is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5659 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 58127 citation(s).

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01 Oct 1995
Abstract: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION What is Power Quality? Power Quality -- Voltage Quality Why Are We Concerned About Power Quality? The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Who Should Use This Book Overview of the Contents CHAPTER 2: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Need for a Consistent Vocabulary General Classes of Power Quality Problems Transients Long-Duration Voltage Variations Short-Duration Voltage Variations Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion Voltage Fluctuation Power Frequency Variations Power Quality Terms Ambiguous Terms CBEMA and ITI Curves References CHAPTER 3: VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS Sources of Sags and Interruptions Estimating Voltage Sag Performance Fundamental Principles of Protection Solutions at the End-User Level Evaluating the Economics of Different Ride-Through Alternatives Motor-Starting Sags Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues References CHAPTER 4: TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES Sources of Transient Overvoltages Principles of Overvoltage Protection Devices for Overvoltage Protection Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients Utility System Lightning Protection Managing Ferroresonance Switching Transient Problems with Loads Computer Tools for Transients Analysis References CHAPTER 5: FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Voltage versus Current Distortion Harmonics versus Transients Harmonic Indexes Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads Harmonic Sources from Industrial Loads Locating Harmonic Sources System Response Characteristics Effects of Harmonic Distortion Interharmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 6: APPLIED HARMONICS Harmonic Distortion Evaluations Principles for Controlling Harmonics Where to Control Harmonics Harmonic Studies Devices for Controlling Harmonic Distortion Harmonic Filter Design: A Case Study Case Studies Standards of Harmonics References Bibliography CHAPTER 7: LONG-DURATION VOLTAGE VARIATIONS Principles of Regulating the Voltage Devices for Voltage Regulation Utility Voltage Regulator Application Capacitors for Voltage Regulation End-User Capacitor Application Regulating Utility Voltage with Distributed Resources Flicker References Bibliography CHAPTER 8: POWER QUALITY BENCHMARKING Introduction Benchmarking Process RMS Voltage Variation Indices Harmonics Indices Power Quality Contracts Power Quality Insurance Power Quality State Estimation Including Power Quality in Distribution Planning References Bibliography CHAPTER 9: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER QUALITY Resurgence of DG DG Technologies Interface to the Utility System Power Quality Issues Operating Conflicts DG on Distribution Networks Siting DGDistributed Generation Interconnection Standards Summary References Bibliography CHAPTER 10: WIRING AND GROUNDING Resources Definitions Reasons for Grounding Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems Bibliography CHAPTER 11: POWER QUALITY MONITORING Monitoring Considerations Historical Perspective of Power Quality Measuring Instruments Power Quality Measurement Equipment Assessment of Power Quality Measurement Data Application of Intelligent Systems Power Quality Monitoring Standards References Index INDEX

1,934 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper, four different system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are analyzed and tested, with particular focus on the methods used to acquire the necessary energy during a voltage sag. Comparisons are made between two topologies that can be realized with a minimum amount of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage.

490 citations

01 Jan 2005
Abstract: This thesis deals with the analysis, modeling, and control of the doubly-fed induction machine used as a wind turbine generator. The energy efficiency of wind turbine systems equipped with doubly-fed induction generators are compared to other wind turbine generator systems. Moreover, the current control of the doubly-fed induction generator is analyzed and finally the sensitivity of different current controllers with respect to grid disturbances are investigated. The energy efficiency of a variable-speed wind turbine system using a doubly-fed induction generator is approximately as for a fixed-speed wind turbine equipped with an induction generator. In comparison to a direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator there might be a small gain in the energy efficiency, depending on the average wind-speed at the site. For a variable-speed wind turbine with an induction generator equipped with a full-power inverter, the energy efficiency can be a few percentage units smaller than for a system with a doubly-fed induction generator. The flux dynamics of the doubly-fed induction machine consist of two poorly damped poles which influence the current controller. These will cause oscillations, with a frequency close to the line frequency, in the flux and in the rotor currents. It has been found that by utilizing a suggested method combining feed-forward compensation and "active resistance," the low-frequency disturbances as well as the oscillations are suppressed better than the other methods evaluated. The maximum value of the rotor voltage will increase with the size of a voltage dip. This means that it is necessary to design the inverter so it can handle a desired value of a voltage dip. For the investigated systems the maximum rotor voltage and current, due to a voltage dip, can be reduced if the doubly-fed induction machine is magnetized from the stator circuit instead of the rotor circuit. Further, it has been found that the choice of current control method is of greater importance if the bandwidth of the current control loop is low.

470 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The developed models proved to accurately represent the PLLs under real test conditions and are presented, providing a refined method for performance evaluation and comparison.
Abstract: In this paper, the performance assessment of three software single-phase phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithms is carried out by means of dynamic analysis and experimental results. Several line disturbances such as phase-angle jump, voltage sag, frequency step, and harmonics are generated by a DSP together with a D/A converter and applied to each PLL. The actual minus the estimated phase-angle values are displayed, providing a refined method for performance evaluation and comparison. Guidelines for parameters adjustments are also presented. In addition, practical implementation issues such as computational delay effects, ride-through, and computational load are addressed. The developed models proved to accurately represent the PLLs under real test conditions.

409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags. Implementations of the DVR have been proposed at both a low voltage (LV) level, as well as a medium voltage (MV) level; and give an opportunity to protect high power sensitive loads from voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5-p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies the use of a combined feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steady-state responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and nonfaulted system states, for a variety of linear and nonlinear loads. Variable duration voltage sags were created using a controllable LV breaker fed by a 630 kVA distribution transformer placed upstream of the sensitive load. The fault currents in excess of 12 kA were designed and created to obtain the required voltage sags. It is concluded the DVR works well in all operating conditions.

406 citations

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