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Volumetric flow rate

About: Volumetric flow rate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15980 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 195176 citation(s). The topic is also known as: rate of fluid flow & volume velocity.

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Abstract: The validity of the cubic law for laminar flow of fluids through open fractures consisting of parallel planar plates has been established by others over a wide range of conditions with apertures ranging down to a minimum of 0.2 µm. The law may be given in simplified form by Q/Δh = C(2b)3, where Q is the flow rate, Δh is the difference in hydraulic head, C is a constant that depends on the flow geometry and fluid properties, and 2b is the fracture aperture. The validity of this law for flow in a closed fracture where the surfaces are in contact and the aperture is being decreased under stress has been investigated at room temperature by using homogeneous samples of granite, basalt, and marble. Tension fractures were artificially induced, and the laboratory setup used radial as well as straight flow geometries. Apertures ranged from 250 down to 4µm, which was the minimum size that could be attained under a normal stress of 20 MPa. The cubic law was found to be valid whether the fracture surfaces were held open or were being closed under stress, and the results are not dependent on rock type. Permeability was uniquely defined by fracture aperture and was independent of the stress history used in these investigations. The effects of deviations from the ideal parallel plate concept only cause an apparent reduction in flow and may be incorporated into the cubic law by replacing C by C/ƒ. The factor ƒ varied from 1.04 to 1.65 in these investigations. The model of a fracture that is being closed under normal stress is visualized as being controlled by the strength of the asperities that are in contact. These contact areas are able to withstand significant stresses while maintaining space for fluids to continue to flow as the fracture aperture decreases. The controlling factor is the magnitude of the aperture, and since flow depends on (2b)3, a slight change in aperture evidently can easily dominate any other change in the geometry of the flow field. Thus one does not see any noticeable shift in the correlations of our experimental results in passing from a condition where the fracture surfaces were held open to one where the surfaces were being closed under stress.

1,533 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001-Polymer
Abstract: In the electrospinning process, polymer fibers with submicron-scale diameters are formed by subjecting a fluid jet to a high electric field. We report an experimental investigation of the electrically forced jet and its instabilities. The results are interpreted within the framework of a recently developed theory for electrified fluid jets. We find that the process can be described by a small set of operating parameters and summarized through the use of operating diagrams of electric field versus flow rate. In addition, the jet current is related to the net charge density and found to depend on the fluid properties, the applied electric field and the equipment configuration. The net charge density appears to be relatively insensitive to the flow rate, at least for high flow rates. The experiments reveal that a key process in the formation of submicron-scale solid fibers is a convective instability, the rapidly whipping jet. The dependence of this instability on electric field and flow rate, and the exponential nature of its growth rate are in accord with the theory.

982 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fluid flow through rock joints is commonly described by the parallel plate model where the volume flow rate varies as the cube of the joint aperture. However, deviations from this model are expected because real joint surfaces are rough and contact each other at discrete points. To examine this problem further, a computer simulation of flow between rough surfaces was done. Realistic rough surfaces were generated numerically using a fractal model of surface topography. Pairs of these surfaces were placed together to form a “joint” with a random aperture distribution. Reynolds equation, which describes laminar flow between slightly nonplanar and nonparallel surfaces, was solved on the two-dimensional aperture mesh by the finite-difference method. The solution is the local volume flow rate through the joint. This solution was used directly in the cubic law to get the so-called “hydraulic aperture.” For various surface roughnesses (fractal dimensions) the hydraulic aperture was compared to the mean separation of the surfaces. At large separations the surface topography has little effect. At small separations the flow is tortuous, tending to be channeled through high-aperture regions. The parameter most affecting fluid flow through rough joints is the ratio of the mean separation between the surfaces to the root-mean-square surface height. This parameter describes the distance the surface asperities protrude into the fluid and accounts for most of the disagreement with the parallel plate model. Variations in the fractal dimension produce only a second-order effect on the fluid flow. For the range of joint closures expected during elastic deformation these results show that the actual flow rate between rough surfaces is about 70–90% of that predicted by the parallel plate model.

783 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Water flow through microtubes with diameters ranging from 50 to 254 μm was investigated experimentally. Microtubes of fused silica (FS) and stainless steel (SS) were used. Pressure drop and flow rates were measured to analyze the flow characteristics. The experimental results indicate significant departure of flow characteristics from the predictions of the conventional theory for microtubes with smaller diameters. For microtubes with large diameters, the experimental results are in rough agreement with the conventional theory. For lower Re, the required pressure drop is approximately the same as predicted by the Poiseuille flow theory. But, as Re increases, there is a significant increase in pressure gradient compared to that predicted by the Poiseuille flow theory. The friction factor therefore is higher than that given in the conventional theory. The results also indicate material dependence of the flow behavior. For the same flow rate and the same diameter, an FS microtube requires a higher pressure gradient than a stainless steel microtube. The measured high pressure gradient may be due to either an early transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow or the effects of surface roughness of the microtubes. These phenomena are discussed in this paper. A roughness-viscosity model is proposed to interpret the experimental data.

676 citations

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