Topic

# Vortex lift

About: Vortex lift is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1204 publications have been published within this topic receiving 24908 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors visualized the airflow around the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and a 'hovering' large mechanical model, and found an intense leading-edge vortex was found on the downstroke, of sufficient strength to explain the high-lift forces.

Abstract: INSECTS cannot fly, according to the conventional laws of aerodynamics: during flapping flight, their wings produce more lift than during steady motion at the same velocities and angles of attack1–5. Measured instantaneous lift forces also show qualitative and quantitative disagreement with the forces predicted by conventional aerodynamic theories6–9. The importance of high-life aerodynamic mechanisms is now widely recognized but, except for the specialized fling mechanism used by some insect species1,10–13, the source of extra lift remains unknown. We have now visualized the airflow around the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and a 'hovering' large mechanical model—the flapper. An intense leading-edge vortex was found on the down-stroke, of sufficient strength to explain the high-lift forces. The vortex is created by dynamic stall, and not by the rotational lift mechanisms that have been postulated for insect flight14–16. The vortex spirals out towards the wingtip with a spanwise velocity comparable to the flapping velocity. The three-dimensional flow is similar to the conical leading-edge vortex found on delta wings, with the spanwise flow stabilizing the vortex.

1,663 citations

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TL;DR: It is reported that, at the Reynolds numbers matching the flows relevant for most insects, flapping wings do not generate a spiral vortex akin to that produced by delta-wing aircraft, and it is found that limiting spanwise flow with fences and edge baffles does not cause detachment of the leading-edge vortex.

Abstract: The flow structure that is largely responsible for the good performance of insect wings has recently been identified as a leading-edge vortex. But because such vortices become detached from a wing in two-dimensional flow, an unknown mechanism must keep them attached to (three-dimensional) flapping wings. The current explanation, analogous to a mechanism operating on delta-wing aircraft, is that spanwise flow through a spiral vortex drains energy from the vortex core. We have tested this hypothesis by systematically mapping the flow generated by a dynamically scaled model insect while simultaneously measuring the resulting aerodynamic forces. Here we report that, at the Reynolds numbers matching the flows relevant for most insects, flapping wings do not generate a spiral vortex akin to that produced by delta-wing aircraft. We also find that limiting spanwise flow with fences and edge baffles does not cause detachment of the leading-edge vortex. The data support an alternative hypothesis-that downward flow induced by tip vortices limits the growth of the leading-edge vortex.

685 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the time dependence of aerodynamic forces for a simple yet important motion, rapid acceleration from rest to a constant velocity at a fixed angle of attack, and found that at angles of attack below 13.5°, there was virtually no evidence of a delay in the generation of lift, in contrast to similar studies made at higher Reynolds numbers.

Abstract: The synthesis of a comprehensive theory of force production in insect flight is hindered in part by the lack of precise knowledge of unsteady forces produced by wings. Data are especially sparse in the intermediate Reynolds number regime (10

675 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a full derivation of the vortex theory of hovering flight is presented, which relates the lift produced by flapping wings to the induced velocity and power of the wake.

Abstract: A full derivation is presented for the vortex theory of hovering flight outlined in preliminary reports. The theory relates the lift produced by flapping wings to the induced velocity and power of the wake. Suitable forms of the momentum theory are combined with the vortex approach to reduce the mathematical complexity as much as possible. Vorticity is continuously shed from the wings in sympathy with changes in wing circulation. The vortex sheet shed during a half-stroke convects downwards with the induced velocity field, and should be approximately planar at the end of a half-stroke. Vorticity within the sheet will roll up into complicated vortex rings, but the rate of this process is unknown. The exact state of the sheet is not crucial to the theory, however, since the impulse and energy of the vortex sheet do not change as it rolls up, and the theory is derived on the assumption that the extent of roll-up is negligible. The force impulse required to generate the sheet is derived from the vorticity of the sheet, and the mean wing lift is equal to that impulse divided by the period of generation. This method of calculating the mean lift is suitable for unsteady aerodynamic lift mechanisms as well as the quasi-steady mechanism. The relation between the mean lift and the impulse of the resulting vortex sheet is used to develop a conceptual artifice - a pulsed actuator disc - that approximates closely the net effect of the complicated lift forces produced in hovering. The disc periodically applies a pressure impulse over some defined area, and is a generalized form of the Froude actuator disc from propeller theory. The pulsed disc provides a convenient link between circulatory lift and the powerful momentum and vortex analyses of the wake. The induced velocity and power of the wake are derived in stages, starting with the simple Rankine-Froude theory for the wake produced by a Froude disc applying a uniform, continuous pressure to the air. The wake model is then improved by considering a `modified' Froude disc exerting a continuous, but non-uniform pressure. This step provides a spatial correction factor for the Rankine-Froude theory, by taking into account variations in pressure and circulation over the disc area. Finally, the wake produced by a pulsed Froude disc is analysed, and a temporal correction factor is derived for the periodic application of spatially uniform pressures. Both correction factors are generally small, and can be treated as independent perturbations of the Rankine-Froude model. Thus the corrections can be added linearly to obtain the total correction for the general case of a pulsed actuator disc with spatial and temporal pressure variations. The theory is compared with Rayner's vortex theory for hovering flight. Under identical test conditions, numerical results from the two theories agree to within 3%. Rayner presented approximations from his results to be used when applying his theory to hovering animals. These approximations are not consistent with my theory or with classical propeller theory, and reasons for the discrepancy are suggested.

541 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the upper surface lift coefficient of an airfoil chord and defined the freestream conditions at the leading edge of the chord line, and the ratio of specific heats.

Abstract: Nomenclature c = airfoil chord CL = lift coefficient = L/!/2pV00c CLu = upper-surface lift coefficient Cp = pressure coefficient = (p -p^)/ Ap Vx 2 Mx = freestream Mach number p = static pressure Re^ = freestream Reynolds number based on airfoil chord = V^clv sp = location of leading-edge stagnation point V^ — freestream velocity v local velocity on airfoil surface x = distance along chord line F = circulation about the airfoil 7 = ratio of specific heats v = kinematic viscosity p = density () oo = freestream conditions () t e = conditions at the airfoil trailing edge

522 citations