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About: Vortex is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 72362 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1304130 citation(s). The topic is also known as: vortices.

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Abstract: Considerable confusion surrounds the longstanding question of what constitutes a vortex, especially in a turbulent flow. This question, frequently misunderstood as academic, has recently acquired particular significance since coherent structures (CS) in turbulent flows are now commonly regarded as vortices. An objective definition of a vortex should permit the use of vortex dynamics concepts to educe CS, to explain formation and evolutionary dynamics of CS, to explore the role of CS in turbulence phenomena, and to develop viable turbulence models and control strategies for turbulence phenomena. We propose a definition of a vortex in an incompressible flow in terms of the eigenvalues of the symmetric tensor ${\bm {\cal S}}^2 + {\bm \Omega}^2$ are respectively the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the velocity gradient tensor ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$. This definition captures the pressure minimum in a plane perpendicular to the vortex axis at high Reynolds numbers, and also accurately defines vortex cores at low Reynolds numbers, unlike a pressure-minimum criterion. We compare our definition with prior schemes/definitions using exact and numerical solutions of the Euler and Navier–Stokes equations for a variety of laminar and turbulent flows. In contrast to definitions based on the positive second invariant of ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$ or the complex eigenvalues of ${\bm \Delta}{\bm u}$, our definition accurately identifies the vortex core in flows where the vortex geometry is intuitively clear.

5,223 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We call attention to the possibility of constructing field theories for the dual string. As an example, we show that a Higgs type of Lagrangian allows for vortex-line solutions, in analogy with the vortex lines in a type II superconductor. These vortex lines can approximately be identified with the Nambu string. In the strong coupling limit we speculate that the vortex lines make up all low energy phenomena. It turns out that this strong coupling limit is “super quantum mechanical” in the sense that the typical action of the theory is very small in comparison with Plank's constant.

2,030 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Past evidence suggests that a large-scale orderly pattern may exist in the noiseproducing region of a jet. Using several methods to visualize the flow of round subsonic jets, we watched the evolution of orderly flow with advancing Reynolds number. As the Reynolds number increases from order 102 to 103, the instability of the jet evolves from a sinusoid to a helix, and finally to a train of axisymmetric waves. At a Reynolds number around 104, the boundary layer of the jet is thin, and two kinds of axisymmetric structure can be discerned: surface ripples on the jet column, thoroughly studied by previous workers, and a more tenuous train of large-scale vortex puffs. The surface ripples scale on the boundary-layer thickness and shorten as the Reynolds number increases toward 105. The structure of the puffs, by contrast, remains much the same: they form at an average Strouhal number of about 0·3 based on frequency, exit speed, and diameter.To isolate the large-scale pattern at Reynolds numbers around 105, we destroyed the surface ripples by tripping the boundary layer inside the nozzle. We imposed a periodic surging of controllable frequency and amplitude at the jet exit, and studied the response downstream by hot-wire anemometry and schlieren photography. The forcing generates a fundamental wave, whose phase velocity accords with the linear theory of temporally growing instabilities. The fundamental grows in amplitude downstream until non-linearity generates a harmonic. The harmonic retards the growth of the fundamental, and the two attain saturation intensities roughly independent of forcing amplitude. The saturation amplitude depends on the Strouhal number of the imposed surging and reaches a maximum at a Strouhal number of 0·30. A root-mean-square sinusoidal surging only 2% of the mean exit speed brings the preferred mode to saturation four diameters downstream from the nozzle, at which point the entrained volume flow has increased 32% over the unforced case. When forced at a Strouhal number of 0·60, the jet seems to act as a compound amplifier, forming a violent 0·30 subharmonic and suffering a large increase of spreading angle. We conclude with the conjecture that the preferred mode having a Strouhal number of 0·30 is in some sense the most dispersive wave on a jet column, the wave least capable of generating a harmonic, and therefore the wave most capable of reaching a large amplitude before saturating.

2,012 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The evolution of a single hairpin vortex-like structure in the mean turbulent field of a low-Reynolds-number channel flow is studied by direct numerical simulation. The structure of the initial three-dimensional vortex is extracted from the two-point spatial correlation of the velocity field by linear stochastic estimation given a second-quadrant ejection event vector. Initial vortices having vorticity that is weak relative to the mean vorticity evolve gradually into omega-shaped vortices that persist for long times and decay slowly. As reported in Zhou, Adrian & Balachandar (1996), initial vortices that exceed a threshold strength relative to the mean flow generate new hairpin vortices upstream of the primary vortex. The detailed mechanisms for this upstream process are determined, and they are generally similar to the mechanisms proposed by Smith et al. (1991), with some notable differences in the details. It has also been found that new hairpins generate downstream of the primary hairpin, thereby forming, together with the upstream hairpins, a coherent packet of hairpins that propagate coherently. This is consistent with the experimental observations of Meinhart & Adrian (1995). The possibility of autogeneration above a critical threshold implies that hairpin vortices in fully turbulent fields may occur singly, but they more often occur in packets. The hairpins also generate quasi-streamwise vortices to the side of the primary hairpin legs. This mechanism bears many similarities to the mechanisms found by Brooke & Hanratty (1993) and Bernard, Thomas & Handler (1993). It provides a means by which new quasi-streamwise vortices, and, subsequently, new hairpin vortices can populate the near-wall layer.

1,784 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
E. P. Gross1
Abstract: For a system of weakly repelling bosons, a theory of the elementary line vortex excitations is developed. The vortex state is characterised by the presence of a finite fraction of the particles in a single particle state of integer angular momentum. The radial dependence of the highly occupied state follows from a self-consistent field equation. The radial function and the associated particle density are essentially constant everywhere except inside a core, where they drop to zero. The core size is the de Broglie wavelength associated with the mean interaction energy per particle. The expectation value of the velocity has the radial dependence of a classical vortex. In this Hartree approximation the vorticity is zero everywhere except on the vortex line. When the description of the state is refined to include the zero point oscillations of the phonon field, the vorticity is spread out over the core. These results confirm in all essentials the intuitive arguments ofOnsager andFeynman. The phonons moving perpendicular to the vortex line are coherent excitations of equal and opposite angular momentum relative to the substratum of moving particles that constitute the vortex. The vortex motion resolves the degeneracy of the Bogoljubov phonons with respect to the azimuthal quantum number.

1,747 citations

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