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Vortex shedding

About: Vortex shedding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10354 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 251027 citation(s).

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Abstract: This review summarizes fundamental results and discoveries concerning vortex-induced vibration (VIV), that have been made over the last two decades, many of which are related to the push to explore very low mass and damping, and to new computational and experimental techniques that were hitherto not available. We bring together new concepts and phenomena generic to VIV systems, and pay special attention to the vortex dynamics and energy transfer that give rise to modes of vibration, the importance of mass and damping, the concept of a critical mass, the relationship between force and vorticity, and the concept of "effective elasticity," among other points. We present new vortex wake modes, generally in the framework of a map of vortex modes compiled from forced vibration studies, some of which cause free vibration. Some discussion focuses on topics of current debate, such as the decomposition of force, the relevance of the paradigm flow of an elastically mounted cylinder to more complex systems, and the relationship between forced and free vibration.

1,619 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When a body oscillates laterally (cross-flow) in a free stream, it can synchronize the vortex formation frequency with the body motion frequency. This fundamental “lock-in” regions is but one in a whole series of synchronization regions, which have been found in the present paper, in an amplitude-wavelength plane (defining the body trajectory) up to amplitudes of five diameters. In the fundamental region, it is shown that the acceleration of the cylinder each half cycle induces the roll-up of the two shear layers close to the body, and thereby the formation of four regions of vorticity each cycle. Below a critical wavelength, each half cycle sees the coalescence of a pair of like-sign vortices and the development of a Karman-type wake. However, beyond this wavelength the like-sign vortices convect away from each other, and each of them pairs with an opposite-sign vortex. The resulting wake comprises a system of vortex pairs which can convect away from the wake centerline. The process of pairing causes the transition between these modes to be sudden, and this explains the sharp change in the character of the cylinder forces observed by Bishop and Hassan, and also the jump in the phase of the lift force relative to body displacement. At precisely the critical wavelength, only two regions of vorticity are formed, and the resulting shed vorticity is more concentrated than at other wavelengths. We interpret this particular case as a condition of “resonant synchronization”, and it corresponds with the peak in the body forces observed in Bishop and Hassan's work.

1,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Measurements on a large circular cylinder in a pressurized wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers from 10^6 to 10^7 reveal a high Reynolds number transition in which the drag coefficient increases from its low supercritical value to a value 0.7 at R = 3.5 × 10^6 and then becomes constant. Also, for R > 3.5 × 10^6, definite vortex shedding occurs, with Strouhal number 0.27.

1,133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When placed ih a fluid stream, some bodies generate separated flow over a substantial proportion of their surface and hence can be classified as bluff. On sharp-edged bluff bodies, separation is fixed at the salient edges, whereas on bluff bodies with continuous surface curvature the location of separation depends both on the shape of the body and the state of the boundary layer. At low Reynolds numbers, when separation first occurs, the flow around a bluff body remains stable, but as the Reynolds number is increased a critical value is reached beyond which instabilities develop. These instabilities can lead to organized unsteady wake motion, dis­ organized motion, or a combination of both. Regular vortex shedding, the subject of this article, is a dominant feature of two-dimensional bluff-body wakes and is present irrespective of whether the separating boundary layers are laminar or turbulent. It has been the subject of research for more than a century, and many hundreds of papers have been written. In recent years vortex shedding has been the topic of Euromech meetings reported on by Mair & Maull (1971) and Bearman & Graham (1980), and a comprehensive review has been undertaken by Berger & Wille (1972). Vortex shedding and general wake turbulence induce fluctuating pres­ sures on the surface of the generating bluff body, and if the body is flexible this can cause oscillations. Oscillations excited by vortex shedding are usually in a direction normal to that of the free stream, and amplitudes as large as 1.5 to 2 body diameters may be recorded. In addition to the generating body, any other bodies in its wake may be forced into oscillation. Broad-band force fluctuations, induced by turbulence produced in the flow around a bluff body, rarely lead to oscillations as severe as those caused by vortex shedding. Some form of aerodynamic instability, such that move-

1,104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Structural features resulting from the interaction of a turbulent jet issuing transversely into a uniform stream are described with the help of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios from 2 to 10 were investigated at crossflow Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 11400. In particular, the origin and formation of the vortices in the wake are described and shown to be fundamentally different from the well-known phenomenon of vortex shedding from solid bluff bodies. The flow around a transverse jet does not separate from the jet and does not shed vorticity into the wake. Instead, the wake vortices have their origins in the laminar boundary layer of the wall from which the jet issues. It is argued that the closed flow around the jet imposes an adverse pressure gradient on the wall, on the downstream lateral sides of the jet, provoking 'separation events’ in the wall boundary layer on each side. These result in eruptions of boundary-layer fluid and formation of wake vortices that are convected downstream. The measured wake Strouhal frequencies, which depend on the jet-crossflow velocity ratio, match the measured frequencies of the separation events. The wake structure is most orderly and the corresponding wake Strouhal number (0.13) is most sharply defined for velocity ratios near the value 4. Measured wake profiles show deficits of both momentum and total pressure.

1,082 citations

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