About: Waste disposal is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29921 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 627786 citation(s).
08 Feb 2008-Science
TL;DR: Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects of an increasingly urbanized world.
Abstract: Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world.
01 May 2010-Water Research
TL;DR: For the first time, a multi-variables optimization approach is described to determine the optimum operation parameters so as to enhance process performance and photooxidation efficiency in the photocatalytic water treatment process.
Abstract: In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic process has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmental friendly and sustainable treatment technology to align with the “ zero ” waste scheme in the water/wastewater industry. The ability of this advanced oxidation technology has been widely demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water. At present, the main technical barriers that impede its commercialisation remained on the post-recovery of the catalyst particles after water treatment. This paper reviews the recent R&D progresses of engineered-photocatalysts, photoreactor systems, and the process optimizations and modellings of the photooxidation processes for water treatment. A number of potential and commercial photocatalytic reactor configurations are discussed, in particular the photocatalytic membrane reactors. The effects of key photoreactor operation parameters and water quality on the photo-process performances in terms of the mineralization and disinfection are assessed. For the first time, we describe how to utilize a multi-variables optimization approach to determine the optimum operation parameters so as to enhance process performance and photooxidation efficiency. Both photomineralization and photo-disinfection kinetics and their modellings associated with the photocatalytic water treatment process are detailed. A brief discussion on the life cycle assessment for retrofitting the photocatalytic technology as an alternative waste treatment process is presented. This paper will deliver a scientific and technical overview and useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field.
01 Jul 2008-Bioresource Technology
TL;DR: This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes and indicates that co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before an aerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency.
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency.
Grégorio Crini1•Institutions (1)
01 Jun 2006-Bioresource Technology
TL;DR: It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes, and chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.
Abstract: Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional sorbents have been investigated. It is well-known that natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and biosorbents can be obtained and employed as inexpensive sorbents. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses various mechanisms involved. It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes. In particular, chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.
15 Nov 2003-Environmental Science & Technology
TL;DR: Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM, and the highest cumulative EEM volume was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions.
Abstract: Excitation−emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the >10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation−emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation−emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (Φi,n). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet−visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 h...