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Water flow

About: Water flow is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 82581 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 912510 citation(s).


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Book
01 Jan 1977
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Temperature 3. Water Vapor and Other Gases 4. Liquid Water in Organisms and their Environment 5. Wind 6. Heat and Mass Transport 7. Conductances for Heat and Mass Transport 8. Heat Flow in the Soil 9. Water Flow in Soil 10. Radiation Basics 11. Radiation Fluxes in Natural Environments 12. Animals and Their Environment 13. Humans and Their Environment 14. Plants and Plant Communities 15. The Light Environment of Plant Canopies Appendix

3,369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper reviews the importance of large continuous openings (macropores) on water flow in soils. The presence of macropores may lead to spatial concentrations of water flow through unsaturated soil that will not be described well by a Darcy approach to flow through porous media. This has important implications for the rapid movement of solutes and pollutants through soils. Difficulties in defining what constitutes a macropore and the limitations of current nomenclature are reviewed. The influence of macropores on infiltration and subsurface storm flow is discussed on the basis of both experimental evidence and theoretical studies. The limitations of models that treat macropores and matrix porosity as separate flow domains is stressed. Little-understood areas are discussed as promising lines for future research. In particular, there is a need for a coherent theory of flow through structured soils that would make the macropore domain concept redundant.

2,409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 May 2006-Science
TL;DR: Gas and water flow measurements through microfabricated membranes in which aligned carbon nanotubes with diameters of less than 2 nanometers serve as pores enable fundamental studies of mass transport in confined environments, as well as more energy-efficient nanoscale filtration.
Abstract: We report gas and water flow measurements through microfabricated membranes in which aligned carbon nanotubes with diameters of less than 2 nanometers serve as pores. The measured gas flow exceeds predictions of the Knudsen diffusion model by more than an order of magnitude. The measured water flow exceeds values calculated from continuum hydrodynamics models by more than three orders of magnitude and is comparable to flow rates extrapolated from molecular dynamics simulations. The gas and water permeabilities of these nanotube-based membranes are several orders of magnitude higher than those of commercial polycarbonate membranes, despite having pore sizes an order of magnitude smaller. These membranes enable fundamental studies of mass transport in confined environments, as well as more energy-efficient nanoscale filtration.

2,390 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A method is presented for developing probability density functions for parameters of soil moisture relationships of capillary head [h(θ)] and hydraulic conductivity [K(θ)]. These soil moisture parameters are required for the assessment of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated media. The method employs a statistical multiple regression equation proposed in the literature for estimating [h(θ)] or [K(θ)] relationships using the soil saturated water content and the percentages of sand and clay. In the absence of known statistical distributions for either [h(θ)] or [K(θ)] relationships, the method facilitates modeling by providing variability estimates that can be used to examine the uncertainty associated with water flow or solute transport in unsaturated media.

1,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Feb 2014-Science
TL;DR: This work investigates permeation through micrometer-thick laminates prepared by means of vacuum filtration of graphene oxide suspensions, which reveal that the GO membrane can attract a high concentration of small ions into the membrane, which may explain the fast ion transport.
Abstract: Graphene-based materials can have well-defined nanometer pores and can exhibit low frictional water flow inside them, making their properties of interest for filtration and separation. We investigate permeation through micrometer-thick laminates prepared by means of vacuum filtration of graphene oxide suspensions. The laminates are vacuum-tight in the dry state but, if immersed in water, act as molecular sieves, blocking all solutes with hydrated radii larger than 4.5 angstroms. Smaller ions permeate through the membranes at rates thousands of times faster than what is expected for simple diffusion. We believe that this behavior is caused by a network of nanocapillaries that open up in the hydrated state and accept only species that fit in. The anomalously fast permeation is attributed to a capillary-like high pressure acting on ions inside graphene capillaries.

1,677 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202265
20211,761
20204,320
20195,328
20185,248
20174,685