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Water splitting

About: Water splitting is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17843 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 830401 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jul 1972-Nature
TL;DR: Water photolysis is investigated by exploiting the fact that water is transparent to visible light and cannot be decomposed directly, but only by radiation with wavelengths shorter than 190 nm.
Abstract: ALTHOUGH the possibility of water photolysis has been investigated by many workers, a useful method has only now been developed. Because water is transparent to visible light it cannot be decomposed directly, but only by radiation with wavelengths shorter than 190 nm (ref. 1).

24,267 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review shows the basis of photocatalytic water splitting and experimental points, and surveys heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting into H2 and O2, and H2 or O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing a sacrificial reagent.
Abstract: This critical review shows the basis of photocatalytic water splitting and experimental points, and surveys heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting into H2 and O2, and H2 or O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing a sacrificial reagent Many oxides consisting of metal cations with d0 and d10 configurations, metal (oxy)sulfide and metal (oxy)nitride photocatalysts have been reported, especially during the latest decade The fruitful photocatalyst library gives important information on factors affecting photocatalytic performances and design of new materials Photocatalytic water splitting and H2 evolution using abundant compounds as electron donors are expected to contribute to construction of a clean and simple system for solar hydrogen production, and a solution of global energy and environmental issues in the future (361 references)

7,805 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2011-Nature Materials
TL;DR: The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER.
Abstract: Catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are at the heart of key renewable-energy technologies including fuel cells and water splitting. Despite tremendous efforts, developing oxygen electrode catalysts with high activity at low cost remains a great challenge. Here, we report a hybrid material consisting of Co₃O₄ nanocrystals grown on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance bi-functional catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although Co₃O₄ or graphene oxide alone has little catalytic activity, their hybrid exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity that is further enhanced by nitrogen doping of graphene. The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions. The same hybrid is also highly active for OER, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER. The unusual catalytic activity arises from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Co₃O₄ and graphene.

4,454 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Advanced materials for electrocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting are central to the area of renewable energy. In this work, we developed a selective solvothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets suspended in solution. The resulting MoS2/RGO hybrid material possessed nanoscopic few-layer MoS2 structures with an abundance of exposed edges stacked onto graphene, in strong contrast to large aggregated MoS2 particles grown freely in solution without GO. The MoS2/RGO hybrid exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) relative to other MoS2 catalysts. A Tafel slope of ∼41 mV/decade was measured for MoS2 catalysts in the HER for the first time; this exceeds by far the activity of previous MoS2 catalysts and results from the abundance of catalytic edge sites on the MoS2 nanoparticles and the excellent electrical coupling to the underlying graphene network. The ∼41 mV/decade Tafel slope suggested the Volmer–Heyrovsky mec...

3,905 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
27 Sep 2002-Science
TL;DR: A chemically modified n-type TiO2 is synthesized by controlled combustion of Ti metal in a natural gas flame and performs water splitting with a total conversion efficiency of 11% and a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 8.35% when illuminated at 40 milliwatts per square centimeter.
Abstract: Although n-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a promising substrate for photogeneration of hydrogen from water, most attempts at doping this material so that it absorbs light in the visible region of the solar spectrum have met with limited success. We synthesized a chemically modified n-type TiO2 by controlled combustion of Ti metal in a natural gas flame. This material, in which carbon substitutes for some of the lattice oxygen atoms, absorbs light at wavelengths below 535 nanometers and has a lower band-gap energy than rutile (2.32 versus 3.00 electron volts). At an applied potential of 0.3 volt, chemically modified n-type TiO2 performs water splitting with a total conversion efficiency of 11% and a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 8.35% when illuminated at 40 milliwatts per square centimeter. The latter value compares favorably with a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 1% for n-type TiO2 biased at 0.6 volt.

3,744 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022189
20212,896
20202,647
20192,389
20181,994
20171,673

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Kazunari Domen

280 papers, 35K citations

Kazuhiko Maeda

109 papers, 15.2K citations

Lei Wang

108 papers, 5K citations

Takashi Hisatomi

82 papers, 9.9K citations

Akihiko Kudo

69 papers, 15.8K citations