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Water supply

About: Water supply is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28780 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 410918 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Alkalinity measurements are used in the interpretation and control of water and wastewater treatment processes and can be interpreted in terms of specific substances only when the chemical composition of the sample is known.
Abstract: 1. Discussion Alkalinity of a water is its acid-neutralizing capacity. It is the sum of all the titratable bases. The measured value may vary significantly with the end-point pH used. Alkalinity is a measure of an aggregate property of water and can be interpreted in terms of specific substances only when the chemical composition of the sample is known. Alkalinity is significant in many uses and treatments of natural waters and wastewaters. Because the alkalinity of many surface waters is primarily a function of carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide content, it is taken as an indication of the concentration of these constitutents. The measured values also may include contributions from borates, phosphates, silicates, or other bases if these are present. Alkalinity in excess of alkaline earth metal concentrations is significant in determining the suitability of a water for irrigation. Alkalinity measurements are used in the interpretation and control of water and wastewater treatment processes. Raw domestic wastewater has an alkalinity less than, or only slightly greater than, that of the water supply. Properly operating anaerobic digesters typically have supernatant alkalinities in the range of 2000 to 4000 mg calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/L. 1

7,133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 2008-Nature
TL;DR: Some of the science and technology being developed to improve the disinfection and decontamination of water, as well as efforts to increase water supplies through the safe re-use of wastewater and efficient desalination of sea and brackish water are highlighted.
Abstract: One of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the world is inadequate access to clean water and sanitation. Problems with water are expected to grow worse in the coming decades, with water scarcity occurring globally, even in regions currently considered water-rich. Addressing these problems calls out for a tremendous amount of research to be conducted to identify robust new methods of purifying water at lower cost and with less energy, while at the same time minimizing the use of chemicals and impact on the environment. Here we highlight some of the science and technology being developed to improve the disinfection and decontamination of water, as well as efforts to increase water supplies through the safe re-use of wastewater and efficient desalination of sea and brackish water.

5,926 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jul 2000-Science
TL;DR: Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025.
Abstract: The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

3,888 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In soil, fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen and wastes containing organic nitrogen are first decomposed to give ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate, which are taken up by plants and used in the synthesis of organic nitrogenous compounds.
Abstract: In soil, fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen and wastes containing organic nitrogen are first decomposed to give ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. The nitrate is taken up by plants during their growth and used in the synthesis of organic nitrogenous compounds. Surplus nitrate readily moves with groundwater (2, 3). Under aerobic conditions, it percolates in large quantities into the aquifer because of the small extent to which degradation or denitrification occurs. Under anaerobic conditions, nitrate may be denitrified or degraded almost completely to nitrogen. The presence of high or low water tables, the amount of rainwater, the presence of other organic material, and other physicochemical properties are also important in determining the fate of nitrate in soil ( 4). In surface water, nitrification and denitrification may also occur, depending on the temperature and pH. The uptake of nitrate by plants, however, is responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in surface water. Nitrogen compounds are formed in the air by lightning or discharged into it from industrial processes, motor vehicles, and intensive agriculture. Nitrate is present in air primarily as nitric acid and inorganic aerosols, as well as nitrate radicals and organic gases or aerosols. These are removed by wet and dry deposition.

3,881 citations

Book
01 Jan 1976
Abstract: Water quality for agriculture , Water quality for agriculture , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

3,370 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202220
20211,018
20201,228
20191,359
20181,426
20171,352