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Watermark

About: Watermark is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20956 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 297524 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations and common geometric transformations provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image.
Abstract: This paper presents a secure (tamper-resistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random vector that is imperceptibly inserted in a spread-spectrum-like fashion into the perceptually most significant spectral components of the data. We argue that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations (such as lossy compression, filtering, digital-analog and analog-digital conversion, requantization, etc.), and common geometric transformations (such as cropping, scaling, translation, and rotation) provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image. In these cases, the watermark detector unambiguously identifies the owner. Further, the use of Gaussian noise, ensures strong resilience to multiple-document, or collusional, attacks. Experimental results are provided to support these claims, along with an exposition of pending open problems.

6,058 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1999-
TL;DR: The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed water marking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media.
Abstract: Multimedia watermarking technology has evolved very quickly during the last few years. A digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it cannot be removed. A watermark typically contains information about the origin, status, or recipient of the host data. In this tutorial paper, the requirements and applications for watermarking are reviewed. Applications include copyright protection, data monitoring, and data tracking. The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed watermarking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media. Robustness and security aspects are discussed in detail. Finally, a few remarks are made about the state of the art and possible future developments in watermarking technology.

1,408 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Nov 1994-
TL;DR: The paper discusses the feasibility of coding an "undetectable" digital water mark on a standard 512/spl times/512 intensity image with an 8 bit gray scale, capable of carrying such information as authentication or authorisation codes, or a legend essential for image interpretation.
Abstract: The paper discusses the feasibility of coding an "undetectable" digital water mark on a standard 512/spl times/512 intensity image with an 8 bit gray scale. The watermark is capable of carrying such information as authentication or authorisation codes, or a legend essential for image interpretation. This capability is envisaged to find application in image tagging, copyright enforcement, counterfeit protection, and controlled access. Two methods of implementation are discussed. The first is based on bit plane manipulation of the LSB, which offers easy and rapid decoding. The second method utilises linear addition of the water mark to the image data, and is more difficult to decode, offering inherent security. This linearity property also allows some image processing, such as averaging, to take place on the image, without corrupting the water mark beyond recovery. Either method is potentially compatible with JPEG and MPEG processing. >

1,359 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that the spatial, quad-based algorithm developed for color images allows for hiding the largest payload at the highest signal-to-noise ratio.
Abstract: A reversible watermarking algorithm with very high data-hiding capacity has been developed for color images. The algorithm allows the watermarking process to be reversed, which restores the exact original image. The algorithm hides several bits in the difference expansion of vectors of adjacent pixels. The required general reversible integer transform and the necessary conditions to avoid underflow and overflow are derived for any vector of arbitrary length. Also, the potential payload size that can be embedded into a host image is discussed, and a feedback system for controlling this size is developed. In addition, to maximize the amount of data that can be hidden into an image, the embedding algorithm can be applied recursively across the color components. Simulation results using spatial triplets, spatial quads, cross-color triplets, and cross-color quads are presented and compared with the existing reversible watermarking algorithms. These results indicate that the spatial, quad-based algorithm allows for hiding the largest payload at the highest signal-to-noise ratio.

1,055 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new method is proposed for the problem of digital camera identification from its images based on the sensor's pattern noise, which serves as a unique identification fingerprint for each camera under investigation by averaging the noise obtained from multiple images using a denoising filter.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new method for the problem of digital camera identification from its images based on the sensor's pattern noise. For each camera under investigation, we first determine its reference pattern noise, which serves as a unique identification fingerprint. This is achieved by averaging the noise obtained from multiple images using a denoising filter. To identify the camera from a given image, we consider the reference pattern noise as a spread-spectrum watermark, whose presence in the image is established by using a correlation detector. Experiments on approximately 320 images taken with nine consumer digital cameras are used to estimate false alarm rates and false rejection rates. Additionally, we study how the error rates change with common image processing, such as JPEG compression or gamma correction.

1,054 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202212
2021503
2020673
2019802
2018848
2017791

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jeng-Shyang Pan

75 papers, 1.1K citations

Mauro Barni

65 papers, 3.9K citations

Jiying Zhao

47 papers, 718 citations

Jiwu Huang

45 papers, 1.9K citations

Santi P. Maity

43 papers, 479 citations