Topic

# Wave impedance

About: Wave impedance is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3027 publications have been published within this topic receiving 36502 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the small signal ac impedance of electron diffusion and recombination in a spatially restricted situation with application in systems such as porous TiO2 nanostructured photoelectrodes and intrinsically conducting polymers is analyzed.

Abstract: This paper analyzes the small signal ac impedance of electron diffusion and recombination in a spatially restricted situation with application in systems such as porous TiO2 nanostructured photoelectrodes and intrinsically conducting polymers. It is shown that the diffusion−recombination model with the main types of boundary conditions assumes a finite set of possible behaviors in the frequency domain, which are classified according to relevant physical parameters. There are four possible cases: (i) the impedance of finite diffusion with reflecting boundary, (ii) the impedance of finite diffusion with absorbing boundary, (iii) the impedance of diffusion-reaction in semiinfinite space or Gerischer impedance, and (iv) the impedance that combines Warburg response at high frequency and a reaction arc at low frequency. The generality of the approach is discussed in terms of the spatial distribution of the electrochemical potential or quasi-Fermi level and also in terms of the transmission line representation....

1,137 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the advantages of plotting a.c. data in terms of impedance, electric modulus, and dissipation factor simultaneously are illustrated, and the degree to which these assignments may be made is related to the dielectric relaxation ratio ( r = ϵ s ϵ ∞ ) and the differences between the time constants of the different relaxation processes present in the material being examined.

Abstract: The advantages of plotting a.c. data in terms of impedance, electric modulus and dissipation factor simultaneously are illustrated. Complex impedance is generally employed for ionic conductors because it can easily distinguish between bulk and grain boundary effects. However, comparison with the modulus and dissipation factor data allows easier interpretation of the microscopic processes responsible for the measured a.c. response. In particular, the difference between localized (i.e. dielectric relaxation) and non-localized conduction (i.e. long range conductivity) processes within the bulk of the material may be discerned by the presence or the absence of a peak in the imaginary modulus versus frequency plot. Similarly, the absence or presence of a peak in the imaginary impedance versus frequency plot can be correlated to space charge effects and non-localized conductivity. Long-range conductivity results in nearly complete impedance semicircles but no frequency dispersion in the permittivity while localized conductivity is reflected in a frequency dependent permittivity but no measurable conductance. The degree to which these assignments may be made is related to the dielectric relaxation ratio ( r = ϵ s ϵ ∞ ) and the differences between the time constants of the different relaxation processes present in the material being examined.

659 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, simple analytical formulas are introduced for the grid impedance of electrically dense arrays of square patches and for the surface impedance of high-impedance surfaces based on the dense array of metal strips or square patches over ground planes.

Abstract: Simple analytical formulas are introduced for the grid impedance of electrically dense arrays of square patches and for the surface impedance of high-impedance surfaces based on the dense arrays of metal strips or square patches over ground planes. Emphasis is on the oblique-incidence excitation. The approach is based on the known analytical models for strip grids combined with the approximate Babinet principle for planar grids located at a dielectric interface. Analytical expressions for the surface impedance and reflection coefficient resulting from our analysis are thoroughly verified by full-wave simulations and compared with available data in open literature for particular cases. The results can be used in the design of various antennas and microwave or millimeter wave devices which use artificial impedance surfaces and artificial magnetic conductors (reflect-array antennas, tunable phase shifters, etc.), as well as for the derivation of accurate higher-order impedance boundary conditions for artificial (high-) impedance surfaces. As an example, the propagation properties of surface waves along the high-impedance surfaces are studied.

636 citations

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Rice University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors review theoretical and numerical studies of the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography, which seeks the electrical conductivity and permittivity inside a body, given simultaneous measurements of electrical currents and potentials at the boundary.

Abstract: We review theoretical and numerical studies of the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography which seeks the electrical conductivity and permittivity inside a body, given simultaneous measurements of electrical currents and potentials at the boundary.

632 citations

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HRL Laboratories

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, an artificial impedance surface that is implemented as an array of sub-wavelength metallic patches on a grounded dielectric substrate is designed to scatter a known input wave into a desired output wave.

Abstract: We have developed a method for controlling electromagnetic surface wave propagation and radiation from complex metallic shapes. The object is covered with an artificial impedance surface that is implemented as an array of sub-wavelength metallic patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. We pattern the effective impedance over the surface by varying the size of the metallic patches. Using a holographic technique, we design the surface to scatter a known input wave into a desired output wave. Furthermore, by varying the shape of the patches we can create anisotropic surfaces with tensor impedance properties that provide control over polarization. As an example, we demonstrate a tensor impedance surface that produces circularly polarized radiation from a linearly polarized source.

566 citations