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Topic

Wavefront

About: Wavefront is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22678 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 326734 citation(s). The topic is also known as: wave surface.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A sensitive single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported. The authors describe the experimental details and present a comprehensive theoretical analysis including cases where nonlinear refraction is accompanied by nonlinear absorption. In these experiments, the transmittance of a sample is measured through a finite aperture in the far field as the sample is moved along the propagation path (z) of a focused Gaussian beam. The sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refraction are easily deduced from such a transmittance curve (Z-scan). Employing this technique, a sensitivity of better than lambda /300 wavefront distortion is achieved in n/sub 2/ measurements of BaF/sub 2/ using picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulses. >

7,137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam.
Abstract: Metamaterials are artificially fabricated materials that allow for the control of light and acoustic waves in a manner that is not possible in nature. This Review covers the recent developments in the study of so-called metasurfaces, which offer the possibility of controlling light with ultrathin, planar optical components. Conventional optical components such as lenses, waveplates and holograms rely on light propagation over distances much larger than the wavelength to shape wavefronts. In this way substantial changes of the amplitude, phase or polarization of light waves are gradually accumulated along the optical path. This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam. Metasurfaces are generally created by assembling arrays of miniature, anisotropic light scatterers (that is, resonators such as optical antennas). The spacing between antennas and their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. As a result the metasurfaces, on account of Huygens principle, are able to mould optical wavefronts into arbitrary shapes with subwavelength resolution by introducing spatial variations in the optical response of the light scatterers. Such gradient metasurfaces go beyond the well-established technology of frequency selective surfaces made of periodic structures and are extending to new spectral regions the functionalities of conventional microwave and millimetre-wave transmit-arrays and reflect-arrays. Metasurfaces can also be created by using ultrathin films of materials with large optical losses. By using the controllable abrupt phase shifts associated with reflection or transmission of light waves at the interface between lossy materials, such metasurfaces operate like optically thin cavities that strongly modify the light spectrum. Technology opportunities in various spectral regions and their potential advantages in replacing existing optical components are discussed.

3,712 citations

BookDOI
Abstract: Fringe scanning techniques, now renamed heterodyning or phase shift interferometry, are covered in a completely rewritten chapter. New chapters have been added to cover wavefront fitting and evaluation as well as holographic and Moire methods. The chapter on parameter measurements has been completely rewritten and an appendix added suggesting appropriate tests for typical optical surfaces.

2,319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength-spaced optical antennas.
Abstract: The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength-spaced optical antennas. The lenses and axicons consist of V-shaped nanoantennas that introduce a radial distribution of phase discontinuities, thereby generating respectively spherical wavefronts and nondiffracting Bessel beams at telecom wavelengths. Simulations are also presented to show that our aberration-free designs are applicable to high-numerical aperture lenses such as flat microscope objectives.

1,386 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Optical trapping is an increasingly important technique for controlling and probing matter at length scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. This paper describes methods for creating large numbers of high-quality optical traps in arbitrary three-dimensional configurations and for dynamically reconfiguring them under computer control. In addition to forming conventional optical tweezers, these methods also can sculpt the wavefront of each trap individually, allowing for mixed arrays of traps based on different modes of light, including optical vortices, axial line traps, optical bottles and optical rotators. The ability to establish large numbers of individually structured optical traps and to move them independently in three dimensions promises exciting new opportunities for research, engineering, diagnostics, and manufacturing at mesoscopic lengthscales.

1,367 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202210
2021796
20201,041
20191,127
20181,112
2017985