Topic

# Waves and shallow water

About: Waves and shallow water is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5833 publications have been published within this topic receiving 108413 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, a third-generation numerical wave model to compute random, short-crested waves in coastal regions with shallow water and ambient currents (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) has been developed, implemented, and validated.

Abstract: A third-generation numerical wave model to compute random, short-crested waves in coastal regions with shallow water and ambient currents (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) has been developed, implemented, and validated. The model is based on a Eulerian formulation of the discrete spectral balance of action density that accounts for refractive propagation over arbitrary bathymetry and current fields. It is driven by boundary conditions and local winds. As in other third-generation wave models, the processes of wind generation, whitecapping, quadruplet wave-wave interactions, and bottom dissipation are represented explicitly. In SWAN, triad wave-wave interactions and depth-induced wave breaking are added. In contrast to other third-generation wave models, the numerical propagation scheme is implicit, which implies that the computations are more economic in shallow water. The model results agree well with analytical solutions, laboratory observations, and (generalized) field observations.

3,197 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a model was developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach and the probability of occurrence of breaking waves was estimated on the basis of a wave height distribution with an upper cut-off which in shallow water is determined mainly by the local depth.

Abstract: A description is given of a model developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach The dissipation rate per breaking wave is estimated from that in a bore of corresponding height, while the probability of occurrence of breaking waves is estimated on the basis of a wave height distribution with an upper cut-off which in shallow water is determined mainly by the local depth A comparison with measurements of wave height decay and set-up, on a plane beach and on a beach with a bar-trough profile, indicates that the model is capable of predicting qualitatively and quantitatively all the main features of the data

1,380 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a third-generation spectral wave model for small-scale, coastal regions with shallow water, (barrier) islands, tidal flats, local wind, and ambient currents is verified in stationary mode with measurements in five real field cases.

Abstract: A third-generation spectral wave model (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) for small-scale, coastal regions with shallow water, (barrier) islands, tidal flats, local wind, and ambient currents is verified in stationary mode with measurements in five real field cases. These verification cases represent an increasing complexity in two- dimensional bathymetry and added presence of currents. In the most complex of these cases, the waves propagate through a tidal gap between two barrier islands into a bathymetry of channels and shoals with tidal currents where the waves are regenerated by a local wind. The wave fields were highly variable with up to 3 orders of magnitude difference in energy scale in individual cases. The model accounts for shoaling, refraction, generation by wind, whitecapping, triad and quadruplet wave-wave interactions, and bottom and depth-induced wave breaking. The effect of alternative formulations of these processes is shown. In all cases a relatively large number of wave observations is available, including observations of wave directions. The average rms error in the computed significant wave height and mean wave period is 0.30 m and 0.7 s, respectively, which is 10% of the incident values for both.

1,000 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the second-order currents and changes in mean surface level which are caused by gravity waves of non-uniform amplitude are investigated, and the effects are interpreted in terms of the radiation stresses in the waves.

Abstract: This paper studies the second-order currents and changes in mean surface level which are caused by gravity waves of non-uniform amplitude. The effects are interpreted in terms of the radiation stresses in the waves.The first example is of wave groups propagated in water of uniform mean depth. The problem is solved first by a perturbation analysis. In two special cases the second-order currents are found to be proportional simply to the square of the local wave amplitude: (a) when the lengths of the groups are large compared to the mean depth, and (b) when the groups are all of equal length. Then the surface is found to be depressed under a high group of waves and the mass-transport is relatively negative there. In case (a) the result can be simply related to the radiation stresses, which tend to expel fluid from beneath the higher waves.The second example considered is the propagation of waves of steady amplitude in water of gradually varying depth. Assuming no loss of energy by friction or reflexion, the wave amplitude must vary horizontally, to maintain the flux of energy constant; it is shown that this produces a negative tilt in the mean surface level as the depth diminishes. However, if the wave height is limited by breaking, the tilt is positive. The results are in agreement with some observations by Fairchild.Lastly, the propagation of groups of waves from deep to shallow water is studied. As the mean depth decreases, so the response of the fluid to the radiation stresses tends to increase. The long waves thus generated may be reflected as free waves, and so account for the 'surf beats’ observed by Munk and Tucker.Generalle speaking, the changes in mean sea level produced by ocean waves are comparable with those due to horizontal wind stress. It may be necessary to allow for the wave stresses in calculating wind stress coefficients.

898 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the growth of an undular bore from a long wave is described, which forms a gentle transition between a uniform flow and still water, and a physical account of its development is followed by the results of numerical calculations.

Abstract: If a long wave of elevation travels in shallow water it steepens and forms a bore. The bore is undular if the change in surface elevation of the wave is less than 0·28 of the original depth of water. This paper describes the growth of an undular bore from a long wave which forms a gentle transition between a uniform flow and still water. A physical account of its development is followed by the results of numerical calculations. These use finite-difference approximations to the partial differential equations of motion. The equations of motion are of the same order of approximation as is necessary to derive the solitary wave. The results are in general agreement with the available experimental measurements.

878 citations