About: Weber number is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2364 publications have been published within this topic receiving 54233 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the collision dynamics of a liquid droplet on a solid metallic surface were studied using a flash photographic method, which provided clear images of the droplet structure during the deformation process.
Abstract: The collision dynamics of a liquid droplet on a solid metallic surface were studied using a flash photographic method. The intent was to provide clear images of the droplet structure during the deformation process. The ambient pressure (0.101 MPa), surface material (polished stainless steel), initial droplet diameter (about 1.5 mm), liquid (n-heptane) and impact Weber number (43) were fixed. The primary parameter was the surface temperature, which ranged from 24 degrees C to above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid. Experiments were also performed on a droplet impacting a surface on which there existed a liquid film created by deposition of a prior droplet. The evolution of wetted area and spreading rate, both of a droplet on a stainless steel surface and of a droplet spreading over a thin liquid film, were found to be independent of surface temperature during the early period of impact. This result was attributed to negligible surface tension and viscous effects, and in consequence the measurements made during the early period of the impact process were in good agreement with previously published analyses which neglected these effects. A single bubble was observed to form within the droplet during impact at low temperatures. As surface temperature was increased the population of bubbles within the droplet also increased because of progressive activation of nucleation sites on the stainless steel surface. At surface temperatures near to the boiling point of heptane, a spoke-like cellular structure in the liquid was created during the spreading process by coalescence of a ring of bubbles that had formed within the droplet. At higher temperatures, but below the Leidenfrost point, numerous bubbles appeared within the droplet, yet the overall droplet shape, particularly in the early stages of impact (< 0.8 ms), was unaffected by the presence of these bubbles. The maximum value of the diameter of liquid which spreads on the surface is shown to agree with predictions from a simplified model.
TL;DR: In this article, a triangular relationship based on the concept of a critical Weber number, breakup time data and velocity history data is presented which permits prediction of the maximum size of stable fragments.
Abstract: The mechanisms of acceleration-induced breakup of liquid drops are reviewed briefly. Data on acceleration-induced fragmentation of liquid drops have been collected from the literature and are presented on a consistent basis. Included are critical Weber number data, breakup time data, velocity history data and fragment size data. A triangular relationship based on the concept of a critical Weber number, breakup time data and velocity history data is presented which permits prediction of the maximum size of stable fragments.
TL;DR: It is shown that in a coflowing stream this transition from dripping to jetting is characterized by a state diagram that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid and the WeberNumber of the inner fluid.
Abstract: A liquid forced through an orifice into an immiscible fluid ultimately breaks into drops due to surface tension. Drop formation can occur right at the orifice in a dripping process. Alternatively, the inner fluid can form a jet, which breaks into drops further downstream. The transition from dripping to jetting is not understood for coflowing fluid streams, unlike the case of drop formation in air. We show that in a coflowing stream this transition can be characterized by a state diagram that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid and the Weber number of the inner fluid.
TL;DR: In this article, a series of time-resolved photographic images which map all the collision regimes in terms of the collision Weber number and the impact parameter were used to identify the controlling factors for different outcomes.
Abstract: An experimental investigation of the binary droplet collision dynamics was conducted, with emphasis on the transition between different collision outcomes. A series of time-resolved photographic images which map all the collision regimes in terms of the collision Weber number and the impact parameter were used to identify the controlling factors for different outcomes. The effects of liquid and gas properties were studied by conducting experiments with both water and hydrocarbon droplets in environments of different gases (air, nitrogen, helium and ethylene) and pressures, the latter ranging from 0.6 to 12 atm. It is shown that, by varying the density of the gas through its pressure and molecular weight, water and hydrocarbon droplets both exhibit five distinct regimes of collision outcomes, namely (I) coalescence after minor deformation, (II) bouncing, (III) coalescence after substantial deformation, (IV) coalescence followed by separation for near head-on collisions, and (V) coalescence followed by separation for off-centre collisions. The present result therefore extends and unifies previous experimental observations, obtained at one atmosphere air, that regimes II and II do not exist for water droplets. Furthermore, it was found that coalescence of the hydrocarbon droplets is promoted in the presence of gaseous hydrocarbons in the environment, suggesting that coalescence is facilitated when the environment contains vapour of the liquid mass. Collision at high-impact inertia was also studied, and the mechanisms for separation of the coalescence are discussed based on time-resolved collision images. A coalescence/separation criterion defining the transition between regimes III and IV for the head-on collisions was derived and found to agree well with the experimental data.
TL;DR: In this paper, a rebound model was proposed to predict the tendency of a droplet to deposit or to rebound on flat surfaces at room temperature at impact velocities, viscosities, and surface roughness.
Abstract: The spread and rebound of droplets upon impact on flat surfaces at room temperature were studied over a wide range of impact velocities (0.5–6 m/s), viscosities (1–100 mPa.s), static contact angles (30–120°), droplet sizes (1.5–3.5 mm), and surface roughnesses using a fast-shutter-speed CCD camera. The maximum spread of a droplet upon impact depended strongly on the liquid viscosity and the impact velocity. The tendency of a droplet to deposit or to rebound is determined primarily by the liquid viscosity and the liquid/substrate static contact angle. A model more broadly applicable than existing models was developed to predict maximum spread as a function of the Reynolds number, the Weber number, and the static contact angle. Based on the conservation of energy, a rebound model is proposed that predicts the tendency to rebound as a function of maximum spread and static contact angle. The maximum-spread model prediction agrees to within 10% with more than 90% of the experimental data from different sources. In the current study, the rebound model successfully predicts the tendency of a droplet to rebound.