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About: Welding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 206514 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1178437 citation(s).

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30 Mar 2007
Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. FSW is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in a decade. Recently, friction stir processing (FSP) was developed for microstructural modification of metallic materials. In this review article, the current state of understanding and development of the FSW and FSP are addressed. Particular emphasis has been given to: (a) mechanisms responsible for the formation of welds and microstructural refinement, and (b) effects of FSW/FSP parameters on resultant microstructure and final mechanical properties. While the bulk of the information is related to aluminum alloys, important results are now available for other metals and alloys. At this stage, the technology diffusion has significantly outpaced the fundamental understanding of microstructural evolution and microstructure–property relationships.

4,233 citations

01 Jan 1949
Abstract: General physical and chemical constants X-ray analysis of metallic material Crystallography Crystal chemistry Metallurgically important minerals Thermochemical data Physical properties of molton salts Metallography Equilibrium diagrams Gas-metal systems Diffusion in metals General physical properties Elastic properties, damping capacity and shape memory alloys Temperature measurement and thermoelectric properties Radiating properties of metals Electron emission Electrical properties Magnetic materials and their properties Mechanical testing Mechanical properties of metals and alloys Sintered materials Lubricants Friction and wear Casting alloys and foundry data Engineering ceramics and refractory materials Fuels Heat treatment Metal cutting and forming Corrosion Electroplating and metal finishing Welding Soldering and brazing Vapour deposited coatings and thermal spraying Superplasticity Metal-matrix composites Non-conventional and emerging metallic minerals modelling and simulation supporting technologies for the processing of metals and alloys.

3,590 citations

02 Aug 2001
Abstract: Part I Basics1 Introduction2 Statistical Considerations3 Materials4 Load and Stress Analysis5 Deflection and StiffnessPart II Failure Prevention6 Failures Resulting from Static Loading7 Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable LoadingPart III Design of Mechanical Elements8 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Nonpermanent Joints9 Welding, Brazing, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent Joints10 Mechanical Springs11 Rolling-Contact Bearings12 Lubrication and Journal Bearings13 Gears - General14 Spur and Helical Gears15 Bevel and Worm Gears16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings and Flywheels17 Flexible Mechanical Elements18 Shafts and AxlesA Appendix A Useful TablesB Appendix B Solutions to Selected ProblemsIndex

2,771 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A mathematical model for weld heat sources based on a Gaussian distribution of power density in space is presented. In particular a double ellipsoidal geometry is proposed so that the size and shape of the heat source can be easily changed to model both the shallow penetration arc welding processes and the deeper penetration laser and electron beam processes. In addition, it has the versatility and flexibility to handle non-axisymmetric cases such as strip electrodes or dissimilar metal joining. Previous models assumed circular or spherical symmetry. The computations are performed with ASGARD, a nonlinear transient finite element (FEM) heat flow program developed for the thermal stress analysis of welds.* Computed temperature distributions for submerged arc welds in thick workpieces are compared to the measured values reported by Christensen1 and the FEM calculated values (surface heat source model) of Krutz and Segerlind.2 In addition the computed thermal history of deep penetration electron beam welds are compared to measured values reported by Chong.3 The agreement between the computed and measured values is shown to be excellent.

2,063 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Friction-stir welding is a refreshing approach to the joining of metals. Although originally intended for aluminium alloys, the reach of FSW has now extended to a variety of materials including steels and polymers. This review deals with the fundamental understanding of the process and its metallurgical consequences. The focus is on heat generation, heat transfer and plastic flow during welding, elements of tool design, understanding defect formation and the structure and properties of the welded materials.

1,662 citations

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