About: Westernization is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1154 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 15791 citation(s). The topic is also known as: occidentalization.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, Woodward explains what happened to Yugoslavia and what can be learned from the response of outsiders to its crisis and argues that focusing on ancient ethnic hatreds and military aggression was a way to avoid the problem and misunderstood nationalism in postcommunist states.
Abstract: Yugoslavia was well positioned at the end of the cold war to make a successful transition to a market economy and westernization. Yet two years later, the country had ceased to exist, and devastating local wars were being waged to create new states. Between the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and the start of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina in March 1992, the country moved toward disintegration at astonishing speed. The collapse of Yugoslavia into nationalist regimes led not only to horrendous cruelty and destruction, but also to a crisis of Western security regimes. Coming at the height of euphoria over the end of the cold war and the promise of a "new world order," the conflict presented Western governments and the international community with an unwelcome and unexpected set of tasks. Their initial assessment that the conflict was of little strategic significance or national interest could not be sustained in light of its consequences. By 1994 the conflict had emerged as the most challenging threat to existing norms and institutions that Western leaders faced. And by the end of 1994, more than three years after the international community explicitly intervened to mediate the conflict, there had been no progress on any of the issues raised by the country's dissolution. In this book, Susan Woodward explains what happened to Yugoslavia and what can be learned from the response of outsiders to its crisis. She argues that focusing on ancient ethnic hatreds and military aggression was a way to avoid the problem and misunderstood nationalism in post-communist states. The real origin of the Yugoslav conflict, Woodward explains, is the disintegration of governmental authority and the breakdown of a political and civil order, a process that occurred over a prolonged period. The Yugoslav conflict is inseparable from international change and interdependence, and it is not confined to the Balkans but is part of a more widespread phenomenon of political disintegration. Woodward's analysis is based on her first-hand experience before the country's collapse and then during the later stages of the Bosnian war as a member of the UN operation sent to monitor cease-fires and provide humanitarian assistance. She argues that Western action not only failed to prevent the spread of violence or to negotiate peace, but actually exacerbated the conflict. Woodward attempts to explain why these challenges will not cease or the Yugoslav conflicts end until the actual causes of the conflict, the goals of combatants, and the fundamental issues they pose for international order are better understood and addressed.
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this paper, Narayan examines ways in which the flow of information across national contexts affects our understanding of issues, and the underlying problems which "culture" poses for the respect of difference and cross-cultural understanding.
Abstract: Dislocating Cultures takes aim at the related notions of nation, identity, and tradition to show how Western and Third World scholars have misrepresented Third World cultures and feminist agendas. Drawing attention to the political forces that have spawned, shaped, and perpetuated these misrepresentations since colonial times, Uma Narayan inspects the underlying problems which "culture" poses for the respect of difference and cross-cultural understanding.Questioning the problematic roles assigned to Third World subjects within multiculturalism, Narayan examines ways in which the flow of information across national contexts affects our understanding of issues. Dislocating Cultures contributes a philosophical perspective on areas of ongoing interest such as nationalism, post-colonial studies, and the cultural politics of debates over tradition and "westernization" in Third World contexts.
16 Dec 2008-Circulation
TL;DR: The existence of higher stroke rates and lower CHD rates in Asian countries than in Western countries and the respective risk factors for this are discussed on the basis of extensive reviews of cohort studies and whether these risk factors differ from those of Western countries are discussed.
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in Asia is an important issue for world health, because half of the world’s population lives in Asia. Asian countries and regions such as Japan, the Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Kingdom of Thailand have greater mortality and morbidity from stroke than from coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas the opposite is true in Western countries.1 The reasons why this specific situation is observed in countries with rapid and early-phase westernization, such as Japan and South Korea, are very interesting. The Seven Countries Study conducted by Keys et al2 in 1957 found that Japanese populations had lower fat intake, lower serum total cholesterol, and lower CHD than populations in the United States and Scandinavia, in spite of higher smoking rates. The serum total cholesterol level in Japan has increased rapidly since World War II in accordance with an increase in dietary fat intake from 10% of total energy intake per capita per day to 25%.1,2 Despite this increase, the specific characteristic of lower CHD incidence and mortality than that in Western countries has persisted.3,4 Whether Japanese people and certain other Asian populations have different risk factors for CHD than Western populations has been a subject of discussion for quite some time. In this article, we discuss the existence of higher stroke rates and lower CHD rates in Asian countries than in Western countries and the respective risk factors for this on the basis of extensive reviews of cohort studies. We also discuss whether these risk factors differ from those of Western countries. Along with this, we examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol and total stroke and its subtypes. We also address the emerging problems and important issues for CVD prevention in Asia. An extensive …
15 Dec 1995
TL;DR: The authors examines the transformation of the Pacific language region under the impact of colonization, westernization and modernization, focusing on the linguistic and socio-historical changes of the past 200 years.
Abstract: In this book, the author examines the transformation of the Pacific language region under the impact of colonization, westernization and modernization. By focusing on the linguistic and socio-historical changes of the past 200 years, it aims to bring a new dimension to the study of Pacific linguistics, which up until now has been dominated by questions of historical reconstruction and language typology. In contrast to the traditional portrayal of linguistic change as a natural process, the author focuses on the cultural and historical forces which drive language change. Using the metaphor of language ecology to explain and describe the complex interplay between languages, speakers and social practice, the author looks at how language ecologies have functioned in the past to sustain language diversity, and, at what happens when those ecologies are disrupted. Whilst most of the examples used in the book are taken from the Pacific and Australian region, the insights derived from this area are shown to have global applications. The text should be useful for linguists and all those interested in the large scale loss of human language.
01 Dec 2001-Journal of Advertising
TL;DR: This paper examined cultural values as reflected in U.S. and Chinese advertising appeals and found that the portrayal of traditional Chinese cultural values remains relatively stable, indicating that subtle changes in cultural values and advertising strategies are visible.
Abstract: This study examines cultural values as reflected in U.S. and Chinese advertising appeals. The findings support most of the hypotheses, indicating that the portrayal of traditional Chinese cultural values remains relatively stable. However, subtle changes in cultural values and advertising strategies are visible. In particular, the youth / modernity appeal that reflects the westernization, as well as the modernization, trend in China seems as prominently displayed in Chinese commercials as in the U.S. commercials. Implications for standardization versus specialization advertising strategies are also explored.
Related Topics (5)
54.2K papers, 1.1M citations
263.7K papers, 5.3M citations
61.1K papers, 1.7M citations
49.7K papers, 1.2M citations
84.3K papers, 983.5K citations