Topic

# White hole

About: White hole is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6809 publications have been published within this topic receiving 268256 citations. The topic is also known as: White hole.

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature, which leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance.

Abstract: In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature\(\frac{{h\kappa }}{{2\pi k}} \approx 10^{ - 6} \left( {\frac{{M_ \odot }}{M}} \right){}^ \circ K\) where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:S+1/4A never decreases whereS is the entropy of matter outside black holes andA is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon.

10,022 citations

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TL;DR: The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution that appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum.

Abstract: The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution. The 2+1 black hole---characterized by mass, angular momentum, and charge, defined by flux integrals at infinity---is quite similar to its 3+1 counterpart. Anti--de Sitter space appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum. Evaluation of the partition function yields that the entropy is equal to twice the perimeter length of the horizon.

3,640 citations

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TL;DR: This article derived expressions for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions.

Abstract: Expressions are derived for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions. Two of the quantities which appear in these expressions, namely the area A of the event horizon and the “surface gravity” κ of the black hole, have a close analogy with entropy and temperature respectively. This analogy suggests the formulation of four laws of black hole mechanics which correspond to and in some ways transcend the four laws of thermodynamics.

3,063 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the canonical ensemble exists for asymptotically anti-de-Sitter space, unlike the case for the case of asymPTotically flat space.

Abstract: The Einstein equations with a negative cosmological constant admit black hole solutions which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter space. Like black holes in asymptotically flat space, these solutions have thermodynamic properties including a characteristic temperature and an intrinsic entropy equal to one quarter of the area of the event horizon in Planck units. There are however some important differences from the asymptotically flat case. A black hole in anti-de Sitter space has a minimum temperature which occurs when its size is of the order of the characteristic radius of the anti-de Sitter space. For larger black holes the red-shifted temperature measured at infinity is greater. This means that such black holes have positive specific heat and can be in stable equilibrium with thermal radiation at a fixed temperature. It also implies that the canonical ensemble exists for asymptotically anti-de Sitter space, unlike the case for asymptotically flat space. One can also consider the microcanonical ensemble. One can avoid the problem that arises in asymptotically flat space of having to put the system in a box with unphysical perfectly reflecting walls because the gravitational potential of anti-de Sitter space acts as a box of finite volume.

2,507 citations

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TL;DR: The results show that the validity of the "second law" of black hole mechanics in dynamical evolution from an initially stationary black hole to a final stationary state is equivalent to the positivity of a total Noether flux, and thus may be intimately related to the positive energy properties of the theory.

Abstract: We consider a general, classical theory of gravity in $n$ dimensions, arising from a diffeomorphism-invariant Lagrangian. In any such theory, to each vector field ${\ensuremath{\xi}}^{a}$ on spacetime one can associate a local symmetry and, hence, a Noether current ($n\ensuremath{-}1$)-form j and (for solutions to the field equations) a Noether charge ($n\ensuremath{-}2$)-form Q, both of which are locally constructed from ${\ensuremath{\xi}}^{a}$ and the fields appearing in the Lagrangian. Assuming only that the theory admits stationary black hole solutions with a bifurcate Killing horizon (with bifurcation surface $\ensuremath{\Sigma}$), and that the canonical mass and angular momentum of solutions are well defined at infinity, we show that the first law of black hole mechanics always holds for perturbations to nearby stationary black hole solutions. The quantity playing the role of black hole entropy in this formula is simply $2\ensuremath{\pi}$ times the integral over $\ensuremath{\Sigma}$ of the Noether charge ($n\ensuremath{-}2$)-form associated with the horizon Killing field. Furthermore, we show that this black hole entropy always is given by a local geometrical expression on the horizon of the black hole. We thereby obtain a natural candidate for the entropy of a dynamical black hole in a general theory of gravity. Our results show that the validity of the "second law" of black hole mechanics in dynamical evolution from an initially stationary black hole to a final stationary state is equivalent to the positivity of a total Noether flux, and thus may be intimately related to the positive energy properties of the theory. The relationship between the derivation of our formula for black hole entropy and the derivation via "Euclidean methods" also is explained.

2,219 citations