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Wireless Routing Protocol

About: Wireless Routing Protocol is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28918 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 689530 citation(s). more


Open access
01 Jan 2000-
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have signicant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our ndings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated. more

Topics: Wireless Routing Protocol (61%), Routing protocol (60%), Wireless sensor network (59%) more

11,410 Citations

Open access
01 Jul 2003-
Abstract: The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), avoiding problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols. more

11,293 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCSA.1999.749281
C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer1Institutions (1)
25 Feb 1999-
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. We present Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. Each mobile host operates as a specialized router, and routes are obtained as needed (i.e., on-demand) with little or no reliance on periodic advertisements. Our new routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. AODV provides loop-free routes even while repairing broken links. Because the protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, the demand on the overall bandwidth available to the mobile nodes is substantially less than in those protocols that do necessitate such advertisements. Nevertheless we can still maintain most of the advantages of basic distance vector routing mechanisms. We show that our algorithm scales to large populations of mobile nodes wishing to form ad-hoc networks. We also include an evaluation methodology and simulation results to verify the operation of our algorithm. more

11,180 Citations

Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-0-585-29603-6_5
David B. Johnson1, David A. Maltz1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1996-
Abstract: An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of other hosts in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. This paper presents a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing. The protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently. Based on results from a packet-level simulation of mobile hosts operating in an ad hoc network, the protocol performs well over a variety of environmental conditions such as host density and movement rates. For all but the highest rates of host movement simulated, the overhead of the protocol is quite low, falling to just 1% of total data packets transmitted for moderate movement rates in a network of 24 mobile hosts. In all cases, the difference in length between the routes used and the optimal route lengths is negligible, and in most cases, route lengths are on average within a factor of 1.01 of optimal. more

  • Figure 7 Average route length used relative to optimal (20 runs)
    Figure 7 Average route length used relative to optimal (20 runs)
  • Figure 2 An example ad hoc network illustrating use of the route cache
    Figure 2 An example ad hoc network illustrating use of the route cache
  • Figure 4 Mobile host B is returning a route error packet to A
    Figure 4 Mobile host B is returning a route error packet to A
  • Figure 6 Example of disconnected clusters with 24 hosts
    Figure 6 Example of disconnected clusters with 24 hosts
  • Figure 1 A simple ad hoc network of three wireless mobile hosts
    Figure 1 A simple ad hoc network of three wireless mobile hosts
  • + 3

8,185 Citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/345910.345953
Brad Karp1, Hsiang-Tsung Kung1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2000-
Abstract: We present Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet's destination to make packet forwarding decisions. GPSR makes greedy forwarding decisions using only information about a router's immediate neighbors in the network topology. When a packet reaches a region where greedy forwarding is impossible, the algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region. By keeping state only about the local topology, GPSR scales better in per-router state than shortest-path and ad-hoc routing protocols as the number of network destinations increases. Under mobility's frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. We describe the GPSR protocol, and use extensive simulation of mobile wireless networks to compare its performance with that of Dynamic Source Routing. Our simulations demonstrate GPSR's scalability on densely deployed wireless networks. more

Topics: Routing table (65%), Geographic routing (64%), IP forwarding (64%) more

7,152 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Mario Gerla

106 papers, 11.3K citations

J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

102 papers, 5.4K citations

Jie Wu

74 papers, 3.6K citations

Nadeem Javaid

71 papers, 1.9K citations

Leonard Barolli

61 papers, 554 citations

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