Topic

# Word error rate

About: Word error rate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11939 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 298031 citation(s).

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TL;DR: The calculation of the q‐value is discussed, the pFDR analogue of the p‐value, which eliminates the need to set the error rate beforehand as is traditionally done, and can yield an increase of over eight times in power compared with the Benjamini–Hochberg FDR method.

Abstract: Summary. Multiple-hypothesis testing involves guarding against much more complicated errors than single-hypothesis testing. Whereas we typically control the type I error rate for a single-hypothesis test, a compound error rate is controlled for multiple-hypothesis tests. For example, controlling the false discovery rate FDR traditionally involves intricate sequential p-value rejection methods based on the observed data. Whereas a sequential p-value method fixes the error rate and estimates its corresponding rejection region, we propose the opposite approach—we fix the rejection region and then estimate its corresponding error rate. This new approach offers increased applicability, accuracy and power. We apply the methodology to both the positive false discovery rate pFDR and FDR, and provide evidence for its benefits. It is shown that pFDR is probably the quantity of interest over FDR. Also discussed is the calculation of the q-value, the pFDR analogue of the p-value, which eliminates the need to set the error rate beforehand as is traditionally done. Some simple numerical examples are presented that show that this new approach can yield an increase of over eight times in power compared with the Benjamini–Hochberg FDR method.

5,026 citations

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TL;DR: Results indicate that it is possible to obtain around 50% reduction of perplexity by using mixture of several RNN LMs, compared to a state of the art backoff language model.

Abstract: A new recurrent neural network based language model (RNN LM) with applications to speech recognition is presented. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain around 50% reduction of perplexity by using mixture of several RNN LMs, compared to a state of the art backoff language model. Speech recognition experiments show around 18% reduction of word error rate on the Wall Street Journal task when comparing models trained on the same amount of data, and around 5% on the much harder NIST RT05 task, even when the backoff model is trained on much more data than the RNN LM. We provide ample empirical evidence to suggest that connectionist language models are superior to standard n-gram techniques, except their high computational (training) complexity. Index Terms: language modeling, recurrent neural networks, speech recognition

4,971 citations

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TL;DR: The Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF) model is presented, which scales linearly with the number of observations and performs well on the large, sparse, and very imbalanced Netflix dataset and is extended to include an adaptive prior on the model parameters.

Abstract: Many existing approaches to collaborative filtering can neither handle very large datasets nor easily deal with users who have very few ratings. In this paper we present the Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF) model which scales linearly with the number of observations and, more importantly, performs well on the large, sparse, and very imbalanced Netflix dataset. We further extend the PMF model to include an adaptive prior on the model parameters and show how the model capacity can be controlled automatically. Finally, we introduce a constrained version of the PMF model that is based on the assumption that users who have rated similar sets of movies are likely to have similar preferences. The resulting model is able to generalize considerably better for users with very few ratings. When the predictions of multiple PMF models are linearly combined with the predictions of Restricted Boltzmann Machines models, we achieve an error rate of 0.8861, that is nearly 7% better than the score of Netflix's own system.

3,597 citations

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TL;DR: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence, which implies a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates.

Abstract: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence. The most unique phenotypic feature visible in a person's face is the detailed texture of each eye's iris. The visible texture of a person's iris in a real-time video image is encoded into a compact sequence of multi-scale quadrature 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients, whose most-significant bits comprise a 256-byte "iris code". Statistical decision theory generates identification decisions from Exclusive-OR comparisons of complete iris codes at the rate of 4000 per second, including calculation of decision confidence levels. The distributions observed empirically in such comparisons imply a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates. In the typical recognition case, given the mean observed degree of iris code agreement, the decision confidence levels correspond formally to a conditional false accept probability of one in about 10/sup 31/. >

3,267 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that significantly better results can often be obtained if the final evaluation criterion is taken directly into account as part of the training procedure.

Abstract: Often, the training procedure for statistical machine translation models is based on maximum likelihood or related criteria. A general problem of this approach is that there is only a loose relation to the final translation quality on unseen text. In this paper, we analyze various training criteria which directly optimize translation quality. These training criteria make use of recently proposed automatic evaluation metrics. We describe a new algorithm for efficient training an unsmoothed error count. We show that significantly better results can often be obtained if the final evaluation criterion is taken directly into account as part of the training procedure.

3,195 citations