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X-ray lithography

About: X-ray lithography is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5302 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 70850 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Apr 1996-Science
Abstract: A high-throughput lithographic method with 25-nanometer resolution and smooth vertical sidewalls is proposed and demonstrated. The technique uses compression molding to create a thickness contrast pattern in a thin resist film carried on a substrate, followed by anisotropic etching to transfer the pattern through the entire resist thickness. Metal patterns with a feature size of 25 nanometers and a period of 70 nanometers were fabricated with the use of resist templates created by imprint lithography in combination with a lift-off process. With further development, imprint lithography should allow fabrication of sub-10-nanometer structures and may become a commercially viable technique for manufacturing integrated circuits and other nanodevices.

2,336 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new lithography paradigm that is based on deformation of a resist by compression molding rather than altering its chemical structure by radiation, and is designed to fabricate nanostructures inexpensively with high throughput is presented.
Abstract: New developments, further details, and applications of imprint lithography are presented. Arrays of 10 nm diameter and 40 nm period holes were imprinted not only in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) on silicon, but also in PMMA on gold substrates. The smallest hole diameter imprinted in PMMA is 6 nm. All the PMMA patterns were transferred to a metal using a liftoff. In addition, PMMA mesa’s of a size from 45 nm to 50 μm were obtained in a single imprint. Moreover, imprint lithography was used to fabricate the silicon quantum dot, wire, and ring transistors, which showed the same behavior as those fabricated using electron (e)-beam lithography. Finally, imprint lithography was used to fabricate nanocompact disks with 10 nm features and 400 Gbits/in.2 data density—near three orders of magnitude higher than current critical dimensions (CDs). A silicon scanning probe was used to read back the data successfully. The study of wear indicates that due to the ultrasmall force in tapping mode, both the nano-CD and the ...

976 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Takashi Ito1, Shinji Okazaki
31 Aug 2000-Nature
TL;DR: Although the introduction of shorter-wavelength light sources and resolution-enhancement techniques should help maintain the current rate of device miniaturization for several more years, a point will be reached where optical lithography can no longer attain the required feature sizes.
Abstract: The phenomenal rate of increase in the integration density of silicon chips has been sustained in large part by advances in optical lithography--the process that patterns and guides the fabrication of the component semiconductor devices and circuitry. Although the introduction of shorter-wavelength light sources and resolution-enhancement techniques should help maintain the current rate of device miniaturization for several more years, a point will be reached where optical lithography can no longer attain the required feature sizes. Several alternative lithographic techniques under development have the capability to overcome these resolution limits but, at present, no obvious successor to optical lithography has emerged.

710 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nanoimprint lithography, a high-throughput, low-cost, nonconventional lithographic method proposed and demonstrated recently, has been developed and investigated. Nanoimprint lithography has demonstrated 10 nm feature size, 40 nm pitch, vertical and smooth sidewalls, and nearly 90° corners. Further experimental study indicates that the ultimate resolution of nanoimprint lithography could be sub-10 nm, the imprint process is repeatable, and the mold is durable. In addition, uniformity over a 15 mm by 18 mm area was demonstrated and the uniformity area can be much larger if a better designed press is used. Nanoimprint lithography over a non-flat surface has also been achieved. Finally, nanoimprint lithography has been successfully used for fabricating nanoscale photodetectors, silicon quantum-dot, quantum-wire, and ring transistors.

477 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Direct laser writing has become a versatile and routine tool for the mask-free fabrication of polymer structures with lateral linewidths down to less than 100 nm. In contrast to its planar counterpart, electron-beam lithography, direct laser writing also allows for the making of three-dimensional structures. However, its spatial resolution has been restricted by diffraction. Clearly, linewidths and resolutions on the scale of few tens of nanometers and below are highly desirable for various applications in nanotechnology. In visible-light far-field fluorescence microscopy, the concept of stimulated emission depletion (STED) introduced in 1994 has led to spectacular record resolutions down to 5.6 nm in 2009. This review addresses approaches aiming at translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography. After explaining basic principles and limitations, possible depletion mechanisms and recent lithography experiments by various groups are summarized. Today, Abbe's diffraction barrier as well as the generalized two-photon Sparrow criterion have been broken in far-field optical lithography. For further future progress in resolution, the development of novel tailored photoresists in combination with attractive laser sources is of utmost importance.

452 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20215
20207
201910
201814
2017101
2016136

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Franco Cerrina

70 papers, 549 citations

Henry I. Smith

70 papers, 1.5K citations

Juan R. Maldonado

36 papers, 242 citations

Yasin Ekinci

20 papers, 670 citations

Sven Achenbach

16 papers, 198 citations