About: Xylanase is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7099 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 163793 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2005-Fems Microbiology Reviews
TL;DR: The adaptation strategies of the extremophilic xylanases isolated to date and the potential industrial applications of these enzymes will also be presented.
Abstract: Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes which randomly cleave the β 1,4 backbone of the complex plant cell wall polysaccharide xylan. Diverse forms of these enzymes exist, displaying varying folds, mechanisms of action, substrate specificities, hydrolytic activities (yields, rates and products) and physicochemical characteristics. Research has mainly focused on only two of the xylanase containing glycoside hydrolase families, namely families 10 and 11, yet enzymes with xylanase activity belonging to families 5, 7, 8 and 43 have also been identified and studied, albeit to a lesser extent. Driven by industrial demands for enzymes that can operate under process conditions, a number of extremophilic xylanases have been isolated, in particular those from thermophiles, alkaliphiles and acidiphiles, while little attention has been paid to cold-adapted xylanases. Here, the diverse physicochemical and functional characteristics, as well as the folds and mechanisms of action of all six xylanase containing families will be discussed. The adaptation strategies of the extremophilic xylanases isolated to date and the potential industrial applications of these enzymes will also be presented.
01 Sep 1988-Microbiological Research
01 Sep 2006-Journal of Biotechnology
TL;DR: This study examines the inhibition of seven cellulase preparations, three xylanase preparations and a beta-glucosidase preparation by two purified, particulate lignin preparations derived from softwood using an organosolv pretreatment process followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.
Abstract: The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol typically involves a disruptive pretreatment process followed by enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the cellulose and hemicellulose components to fermentable sugars. Attempts to improve process economics include protein engineering of cellulases, xylanases and related hydrolases to improve their specific activity or stability. However, it is recognized that enzyme performance is reduced during lignocellulose hydrolysis by interaction with lignin or lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC), so the selection or engineering of enzymes with reduced lignin interaction offers an alternative means of enzyme improvement. This study examines the inhibition of seven cellulase preparations, three xylanase preparations and a beta-glucosidase preparation by two purified, particulate lignin preparations derived from softwood using an organosolv pretreatment process followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The two lignin preparations had similar particle sizes and surface areas but differed significantly in other physical properties and in their chemical compositions determined by a 2D correlation HSQC NMR technique and quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy. The various cellulases differed by up to 3.5-fold in their inhibition by lignin, while the xylanases showed less variability (< or = 1.7-fold). Of all the enzymes tested, beta-glucosidase was least affected by lignin.
01 Jan 1999-Biotechnology Progress
TL;DR: A wide range of applications in the pulp and paper industry have now been identified, and the most important application of enzymes is in the prebleaching of kraft pulp, where Xylanase enzymes have been found to be most effective.
Abstract: The pulp and paper industry processes huge quantities of lignocellulosic biomass every year. The technology for pulp manufacture is highly diverse, and numerous opportunities exist for the application of microbial enzymes. Historically, enzymes have found some uses in the paper industry, but these have been mainly confined to areas such as modifications of raw starch. However, a wide range of applications in the pulp and paper industry have now been identified. The use of enzymes in the pulp and paper industry has grown rapidly since the mid 1980s. While many applications of enzymes in the pulp and paper industry are still in the research and development stage, several applications have found their way into the mills in an unprecedented short period of time. Currently the most important application of enzymes is in the prebleaching of kraft pulp. Xylanase enzymes have been found to be most effective for that purpose. Xylanase prebleaching technology is now in use at several mills worldwide. This technology has been successfully transferred to full industrial scale in just a few years. The enzymatic pitch control method using lipase was put into practice in a large-scale paper-making process as a routine operation in the early 1990s and was the first case in the world in which an enzyme was successfully applied in the actual paper-making process. Improvement of pulp drainage with enzymes is practiced routinely at mill scale. Enzymatic deinking has also been successfully applied during mill trials and can be expected to expand in application as increasing amounts of newsprint must be deinked and recycled. The University of Georgia has recently opened a pilot plant for deinking of recycled paper. Pulp bleaching with a laccase mediator system has reached pilot plant stage and is expected to be commercialized soon. Enzymatic debarking, enzymatic beating, and reduction of vessel picking with enzymes are still in the R&D stage but hold great promise for reducing energy. Other enzymatic applications, i.e., removal of shives and slime, retting of flax fibers, and selective removal of xylan, are also expected to have a profound impact on the future technology of the pulp and paper-making process.
01 Jan 1990-Soil Biology & Biochemistry
TL;DR: Investigations confirm the high stability of the soil enzyme cellulase, and further the high correlation of this enzyme, and of the xylanase, with the humus content of 7 different soils.
Abstract: We present a method for the quantification of xylanase-, CM-cellulase- or invertase activities of soils. It is possible to offer a simple, sensitive (2.8 μg glucose ml−1 assay mixture) and reproducible determination of the enzyme potentials of soils used by agriculture and forestry. The determination of the activity is carried out via the substrate (xylane, CM-cellulose or sucrose), the reaction is performed at pH 5.5 and 50 C. The reducing sugars are measured colorimetrically after reaction with a potassium ferric hexa-cyanide reagent. Additional investigations confirm the high stability of the soil enzyme cellulase, and further the high correlation of this enzyme, and of the xylanase, with the humus content of 7 different soils.
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