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Yield (engineering)

About: Yield (engineering) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26954 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 388258 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
John W. Rudnicki1, James R. Rice1Institutions (1)
Abstract: T his paper investigates the hypothesis that localization of deformation into a shear band may be considered a result of an instability in the constitutive description of homogeneous deformation. General conditions for a bifurcation, corresponding to the localization of deformation into a planar band, are derived. Although the analysis is general and applications to other localization phenomena are noted, the constitutive relations which are examined in application of the criterion for localization are intended to model the behavior of brittle rock masses under compressive principal stresses. These relations are strongly pressure-sensitive since inelasticity results from frictional sliding on an array of fissures; the resulting inelastic response is dilatant, owing to uplift in sliding at asperities and to local tensile cracking from fissure tips. The appropriate constitutive descriptions involve non-normality of plastic strain increments to the yield hyper-surface. Also, it is argued that the subsequent yield surfaces will develop a vertex-like structure. Both of these features are shown to be destabilizing and to strongly influence the resulting predictions for localization by comparison to predictions based on classical plasticity idealizations, involving normality and smooth yield surfaces. These results seem widely applicable to discussions of the inception of rupture as a constitutive instability.

2,287 citations


01 Jan 1979-

2,240 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jeeho Lee1, Gregory L. FenvesInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A new plastic-damage model for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fracture-energy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics. Two damage variables, one for tensile damage and the other for compressive damage, and a yield function with multiple-hardening variables are introduced to account for different damage states. The uniaxial strength functions are factored into two parts, corresponding to the effective stress and the degradation of elastic stiffness. The constitutive relations for elastoplastic responses are decoupled from the degradation damage response, which provides advantages in the numerical implementation. In the present model, the strength function for the effective stress is used to control the evolution of the yield surface, so that calibration with experimental results is convenient. A simple and thermodynamically consistent scalar degradation model is introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its recovery during crack opening and closing. The performance of the plastic-damage model is demonstrated with several numerical examples of simulating monotonically and cyclically loaded concrete specimens.

2,208 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: According to a suggestion of Nabarro, any crystal can change its shape by self‐diffusion in such way as to yield to an applied shearing stress, and this can cause the macroscopic behavior of a polycrystalline solid to be like that of a viscous fluid. It is possible that this phenomenon is the predominant cause of creep at very high temperatures and very low stresses, though not under more usual conditions. The theory underlying it is developed quantitatively, and calculations of rate of creep, or equivalently of effective viscosity, are given for aggregates of quasi‐spherical grains and for wires composed of cylindrical grains. Allowance is made for the effect of tangential stress relaxation at the grain boundaries. It is suggested that mosaic boundaries and boundaries between grains of nearly the same orientation may be unable to serve as sources or sinks of the diffusion currents, in which case the creep rate will depend only on the configuration of grain boundaries having a sizable orientation differen...

2,119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
H.W. Swift1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper examines the conditions for instability of plastic strain under plane stress for a material conforming to the Mises-Hencky yield condition and strain-hardening according to a unique relationship between root-mean-square values of shear stress (q) and incremental strain (δψ). If, under fixed loading conditions, the material undergoes a strain increment which is consistent with the applied stress system, the conditions are stable or unstable according as the increment in representative yield stress is greater or less than the increment in representative induced stress. The strain at which instability arises is found in terms of the biaxial stress ratio p2/p1 under different conditions of applied loading, and the effect is demonstrated of strain-hardening according to an empirical relation of the type q = c (a + ψ)n. The analysis is also applied to certain cases of non-uniform stress distribution. In the case of the hydrostatic bulge results are obtained showing a critical thinning ranging from 26 per cent for a non-hardening material to about 45 per cent for typical strain-hardening materials, values in general agreement with experimental data. Conditions over the punch head in the pressing of a cylindrical shell are discussed but computations are not attempted.

1,400 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202243
20211,140
20201,411
20191,224
20181,327
20171,127