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Young's modulus

About: Young's modulus is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20823 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 484174 citation(s). The topic is also known as: elastic modulus & modulus of elasticity.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Changgu Lee1, Xiaoding Wei1, Jeffrey W. Kysar1, James Hone1, James Hone2 
18 Jul 2008-Science
TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

15,863 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1996-Nature
Abstract: CARBON nanotubes are predicted to have interesting mechanical properties—in particular, high stiffness and axial strength—as a result of their seamless cylindrical graphitic structure1–5. Their mechanical properties have so far eluded direct measurement, however, because of the very small dimensions of nanotubes. Here we estimate the Young's modulus of isolated nanotubes by measuring, in the transmission electron microscope, the amplitude of their intrinsic thermal vibrations. We find that carbon nanotubes have exceptionally high Young's moduli, in the terapascal (TPa) range. Their high stiffness, coupled with their low density, implies that nanotubes might be useful as nanoscale fibres in strong, lightweight composite materials.

5,013 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An analysis is made of the effect of orientation of the fibres on the stiffness and strength of paper and other fibrous materials. It is shown that these effects may be represented completely by the first few coefficients of the distribution function for the fibres in respect of orientation, the first three Fourier coefficients for a planar matrix and the first fifteen spherical harmonics for a solid medium. For the planar case it is shown that all possible types of elastic behaviour may be represented by composition of four sets of parallel fibres in appropriate ratios. The means of transfer of load from fibre to fibre are considered and it is concluded that the effect of short fibres may be represented merely by use of a reduced value for their modulus of elasticity. The results of the analysis are applied to certain samples of resin bonded fibrous filled materials and moderately good agreement with experimental results is found.

3,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We estimate the stiffness of single-walled carbon nanotubes by observing their freestanding room-temperature vibrations in a transmission electron microscope. The nanotube dimensions and vibration amplitude are measured from electron micrographs, and it is assumed that the vibration modes are driven stochastically and are those of a clamped cantilever. Micrographs of 27 nanotubes in the diameter range 1.0--1.5 nm were measured to yield an average Young's modulus of $〈Y〉=1.25 \mathrm{TPa}.$ This value is consistent with previous measurements for multiwalled nanotubes, and is higher than the currently accepted value of the in-plane modulus of graphite.

1,571 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mechanical behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites was studied in both tension and compression. It was found that the compression modulus is higher than the tensile modulus, indicating that load transfer to the nanotubes in the composite is much higher in compression. In addition, it was found that the Raman peak position, indicating the strain in the carbon bonds under loading, shifts significantly under compression but not in tension. It is proposed that during load transfer to multiwalled nanotubes, only the outer layers are stressed in tension whereas all the layers respond in compression.

1,557 citations

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