About: Zone plate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3066 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 42992 citation(s). The topic is also known as: diffractive lens & Fresnel zone plate.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Laser beams that contain phase singularities can be generated with computer-generated holograms, which in the simplest case have the form of spiral Fresnel zone plates.
Abstract: Laser beams that contain phase singularities can be generated with computer-generated holograms, which in the simplest case have the form of spiral Fresnel zone plates.
Abstract: THE development of techniques for focusing X-rays has occupied physicists for more than a century. Refractive lenses, which are used extensively in visible-light optics, are generally considered inappropriate for focusing X-rays, because refraction effects are extremely small and absorption is strong. This has lead to the development of alternative approaches1,2 based on bent crystals and X-ray mirrors, Fresnel and Bragg–Fresnel zone plates, and capillary optics (Kumakhov lenses). Here we describe a simple procedure for fabricating refractive lenses that are effective for focusing of X-rays in the energy range 5–40 keV. The problems associated with absorption are minimized by fabricating the lenses from low-atomic-weight materials. Refraction of X-rays by one such lens is still extremely small, but a compound lens (consisting of tens or hundreds of individual lenses arranged in a linear array) can readily focus X-rays in one or two dimensions. We have fabricated a compound lens by drilling 30 closely spaced holes (each having a radius of 0.3 mm) in an aluminium block, and we demonstrate its effectiveness by focusing a 14-keV X-ray beam to a spot size of 8 μm.
TL;DR: The achievement of sub-15-nm spatial resolution with a soft X-ray microscope—and a clear path to below 10 nm—using an overlay technique for zone plate fabrication is reported.
Abstract: The study of nanostructures is creating a need for microscopes that can see beyond the limits of conventional visible light and ultraviolet microscopes. X-ray imaging is a promising option. A new microscope described this week achieves unprecedented resolution, and has the ability to see through containing material. It features a specially made two-component zone plate — a lens with concentric zones rather like the rings in the Fresnel lenses familiar in overhead projectors and elsewhere — that makes use of diffraction to project an image into a CCD camera sensitive to soft X-rays. Spatial resolution of better than 15 nm is possible. Analytical tools that have spatial resolution at the nanometre scale are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. It is desirable that these tools also permit elemental and chemical identification on a scale of 10 nm or less, with large penetration depths. A variety of techniques1,2,3,4,5,6,7 in X-ray imaging are currently being developed that may provide these combined capabilities. Here we report the achievement of sub-15-nm spatial resolution with a soft X-ray microscope—and a clear path to below 10 nm—using an overlay technique for zone plate fabrication. The microscope covers a spectral range from a photon energy of 250 eV (∼5 nm wavelength) to 1.8 keV (∼0.7 nm), so that primary K and L atomic resonances of elements such as C, N, O, Al, Ti, Fe, Co and Ni can be probed. This X-ray microscopy technique is therefore suitable for a wide range of studies: biological imaging in the water window8,9; studies of wet environmental samples10,11; studies of magnetic nanostructures with both elemental and spin-orbit sensitivity12,13,14; studies that require viewing through thin windows, coatings or substrates (such as buried electronic devices in a silicon chip15); and three-dimensional imaging of cryogenically fixed biological cells9,16.
TL;DR: Two new soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopes located at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been designed, built and commissioned and interferometer control implemented in both microscopes allows the precise measurement of the transverse position of the zone plate relative to the sample.
Abstract: Two new soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopes located at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been designed, built and commissioned. Interferometer control implemented in both microscopes allows the precise measurement of the transverse position of the zone plate relative to the sample. Long-term positional stability and compensation for transverse displacement during translations of the zone plate have been achieved. The interferometer also provides low-distortion orthogonal x, y imaging. Two different control systems have been developed: a digital control system using standard VXI components at beamline 7.0, and a custom feedback system based on PC AT boards at beamline 5.3.2. Both microscopes are diffraction limited with the resolution set by the quality of the zone plates. Periodic features with 30 nm half period can be resolved with a zone plate that has a 40 nm outermost zone width. One microscope is operating at an undulator beamline (7.0), while the other is operating at a novel dedicated bending-magnet beamline (5.3.2), which is designed specifically to illuminate the microscope. The undulator beamline provides count rates of the order of tens of MHz at high-energy resolution with photon energies of up to about 1000 eV. Although the brightness of a bending-magnet source is about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of an undulator source, photon statistics limited operation with intensities in excess of 3 MHz has been achieved at high energy resolution and high spatial resolution. The design and performance of these microscopes are described.
Abstract: Phase-reversal zone plates can be designed even for regions of the electromagnetic spectrum where the index of refraction is complex, with a real part close to 1.0. These devices are superior to Fresnel zone plates both in their light collection, and in their signal-to-noise characteristics. Materials with suitable optical and mechanical properties exist throughout most of the 1–800-A wavelength range for their construction. Imperfections in fabrication, such as incorrect plate thickness, sloping zone edges, or an error in the width of alternate zones result in only moderate deterioration in optical performance.