scispace - formally typeset
Topic

Zone Routing Protocol

About: Zone Routing Protocol is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18209 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 383658 citation(s).

...read more

Papers
More filters

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Charles E. Perkins1, Pravin Bhagwat2Institutions (2)
01 Oct 1994-
TL;DR: The modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing the links between the Mobile hosts.

...read more

Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of Mobile Hosts without the required intervention of any centralized Access Point. In this paper we present an innovative design for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. The basic idea of the design is to operate each Mobile Host as a specialized router, which periodically advertises its view of the interconnection topology with other Mobile Hosts within the network. This amounts to a new sort of routing protocol. We have investigated modifications to the basic Bellman-Ford routing mechanisms, as specified by RIP [5], to make it suitable for a dynamic and self-starting network mechanism as is required by users wishing to utilize ad hoc networks. Our modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing the links between the Mobile Hosts. Finally, we describe the ways in which the basic network-layer routing can be modified to provide MAC-layer support for ad-hoc networks.

...read more

6,770 citations


01 Oct 2003-
TL;DR: The Optimized Link State Routing protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN and provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops).

...read more

Abstract: This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the protocol is that of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are selected nodes which forward broadcast messages during the flooding process. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a classical flooding mechanism, where every node retransmits each message when it receives the first copy of the message. In OLSR, link state information is generated only by nodes elected as MPRs. Thus, a second optimization is achieved by minimizing the number of control messages flooded in the network. As a third optimization, an MPR node may chose to report only links between itself and its MPR selectors. Hence, as contrary to the classic link state algorithm, partial link state information is distributed in the network. This information is then used for route calculation. OLSR provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops). The protocol is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the technique of MPRs works well in this context.

...read more

5,306 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jamal N. Al-Karaki1, Ahmed E. Kamal2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: A survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in WSNs is presented and the design trade-offs between energy and communication overhead savings in every routing paradigm are studied.

...read more

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. Routing protocols in WSNs might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this article we present a survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in WSNs. We first outline the design challenges for routing protocols in WSNs followed by a comprehensive survey of routing techniques. Overall, the routing techniques are classified into three categories based on the underlying network structure: flit, hierarchical, and location-based routing. Furthermore, these protocols can be classified into multipath-based, query-based, negotiation-based, QoS-based, and coherent-based depending on the protocol operation. We study the design trade-offs between energy and communication overhead savings in every routing paradigm. We also highlight the advantages and performance issues of each routing technique. The article concludes with possible future research areas.

...read more

4,572 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Sergio Marti1, TJ Giuli1, Kevin Lai1, Mary Baker1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2000-
TL;DR: Two techniques that improve throughput in an ad hoc network in the presence of nodes that agree to forward packets but fail to do so are described, using a watchdog that identifies misbehaving nodes and a pathrater that helps routing protocols avoid these nodes.

...read more

Abstract: This paper describes two techniques that improve throughput in an ad hoc network in the presence of nodes that agree to forward packets but fail to do so. To mitigate this problem, we propose categorizing nodes based upon their dynamically measured behavior. We use a watchdog that identifies misbehaving nodes and a pathrater that helps routing protocols avoid these nodes. Through simulation we evaluate watchdog and pathrater using packet throughput, percentage of overhead (routing) transmissions, and the accuracy of misbehaving node detection. When used together in a network with moderate mobility, the two techniques increase throughput by 17% in the presence of 40% misbehaving nodes, while increasing the percentage of overhead transmissions from the standard routing protocol's 9% to 17%. During extreme mobility, watchdog and pathrater can increase network throughput by 27%, while increasing the overhead transmissions from the standard routing protocol's 12% to 24%.

...read more

3,697 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kemal Akkaya1, Mohamed Younis1Institutions (1)
01 May 2005-
TL;DR: The three main categories explored in this paper are data-centric, hierarchical and location-based; each routing protocol is described and discussed under the appropriate category.

...read more

Abstract: Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have led to many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy awareness is an essential consideration. Most of the attention, however, has been given to the routing protocols since they might differ depending on the application and network architecture. This paper surveys recent routing protocols for sensor networks and presents a classification for the various approaches pursued. The three main categories explored in this paper are data-centric, hierarchical and location-based. Each routing protocol is described and discussed under the appropriate category. Moreover, protocols using contemporary methodologies such as network flow and quality of service modeling are also discussed. The paper concludes with open research issues. � 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

...read more

3,501 citations


14


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Dynamic Source Routing

32.2K papers, 695.7K citations

94% related
Link-state routing protocol

31.7K papers, 676.8K citations

94% related
Wireless Routing Protocol

28.9K papers, 689.5K citations

94% related
Hazy Sighted Link State Routing Protocol

6.9K papers, 169.3K citations

93% related
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

14.2K papers, 312.6K citations

92% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202113
202019
201919
201866
2017738

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

81 papers, 5.1K citations

Nadeem Javaid

81 papers, 2K citations

Mario Gerla

58 papers, 6.8K citations

Zahoor Ali Khan

55 papers, 1.5K citations

Jie Wu

34 papers, 1.1K citations