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Particle, atom or molecule with a net electrical charge

107.5K papers2M citations


Small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently

44.3K papers1.9M citations


System or group of people governing an organized community, often a state

141K papers1.9M citations


64.3K papers1.9M citations

Battery (electricity)

169.5K papers1.9M citations

Social support

Perception and reality of support from others

50.8K papers1.9M citations


Restriction in blood supply to tissues

53.6K papers1.9M citations


Sterol biosynthesized by all animal cells

44.6K papers1.9M citations


Physical quantity, density of magnetic moment per volume

107.8K papers1.9M citations

Interleukin 21

Mammalian protein found in humans

25.3K papers1.9M citations

Cloud computing

Form of shared Internet-based computing

156.4K papers1.9M citations


Small localized object considered in physical sciences

96.5K papers1.9M citations

Energy source

88.8K papers1.9M citations


Transfer of information or power that does not require the use of physical wires

133.4K papers1.9M citations

Matrix (mathematics)

Two-dimensional array of numbers

105.5K papers1.9M citations


Chemical reaction

172.3K papers1.9M citations

Nucleic acid sequence

Succession of nucleotides in a nucleic acid

41.6K papers1.9M citations

Angiotensin II

51.3K papers1.9M citations


Variety and variability of life forms

44.8K papers1.9M citations

In vivo

Process of testing biological interventions on whole, living organisms

61.3K papers1.9M citations

IL-2 receptor

25.8K papers1.9M citations


Gradual destruction of materials by chemical reaction with its environment

152.8K papers1.9M citations

Embryonic stem cell

Pluripotent stem cell of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst

35.1K papers1.9M citations

Prefrontal cortex

Part of brain largely responsible for personality, decision making, and social behaviour

24K papers1.9M citations

Empirical research

Research using empirical evidence

51.3K papers1.9M citations


71.3K papers1.9M citations


Vertebrate brain region involved in memory consolidation

34.9K papers1.9M citations


Chemical which binds to and activates a biochemical receptor

53.7K papers1.9M citations

Quantum dot

Zero-dimensional, nano-scale semiconductor particles with novel optical and electronic properties

76.7K papers1.9M citations

Antenna (radio)

Electrical device

208K papers1.8M citations

Cell adhesion

Process of cell attachment

29.6K papers1.8M citations


Chemical compound

42.5K papers1.8M citations

Lipid peroxidation

42.4K papers1.8M citations

Information system

Combination of information, resources, activities and people that support tasks in an organization; a group of components that interact to produce information

107.5K papers1.8M citations

Identity (social science)

Qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that distinguish a person or group

93.7K papers1.8M citations

Prospective cohort study

Longitudinal cohort study

38.5K papers1.8M citations

Renal function

59.2K papers1.8M citations


Light emission from substances after they absorb photons

83.4K papers1.8M citations


Average measure of the efficiency of production

86.9K papers1.8M citations

Environmental exposure

37.4K papers1.8M citations

Investment (macroeconomics)

94.5K papers1.8M citations

Optical fiber

Light-conducting fiber

167K papers1.8M citations

Job satisfaction

Attitude of a person towards work

58K papers1.8M citations

Superoxide dismutase

Class of enzymes

38.7K papers1.8M citations


Abnormal condition that negatively affects an organism

47.9K papers1.8M citations

Glutamate receptor

Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells

33.5K papers1.8M citations

Drug delivery

Methods for delivering drugs to target sites

49.7K papers1.8M citations

Clinical trial

Phase of clinical research in medicine

57.6K papers1.8M citations

Image segmentation

Partitioning a digital image into segments

79.6K papers1.8M citations

Star formation

Process by which dense regions of molecular clouds in interstellar space collapse to form stars

37.4K papers1.8M citations


Chemical element, symbol Cu and atomic number 29

122.3K papers1.8M citations


41.4K papers1.8M citations


Spread of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture

81.8K papers1.7M citations

Social change

Any significant alteration in societal order

61.1K papers1.7M citations

Protein kinase C

Family of enzymes

38.2K papers1.7M citations

Alzheimer's disease

Progressive and terminal neurodegenerative disease characterised by memory loss

21K papers1.7M citations


Study of DNA modifications that do not change its sequence

38.1K papers1.7M citations


Group of neurological disorders causing seizures

62.7K papers1.7M citations


59K papers1.7M citations

Node (networking)

Device or point within a network capable of creating, receiving, or transmitting data

158.3K papers1.7M citations

Extracellular matrix

Network of proteins and molecules outside cells that provides structural support for cells

32.5K papers1.7M citations


Group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow

54.5K papers1.7M citations

Electric power system

Network of electrical component deployed to generate, transmit & distribute electricity

133K papers1.7M citations


Compound that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules

37.9K papers1.7M citations

Protein subunit

33.2K papers1.7M citations


Process of designing, launching and running a new business

71.7K papers1.7M citations

Stromal cell

Connective tissue cell of any organ

37.5K papers1.7M citations

Feature (computer vision)

Piece of information about the content of an image

128.2K papers1.7M citations


Difference in electric potential between two points in space

296.3K papers1.7M citations


Administration of a vaccine to protect against disease

65.1K papers1.7M citations

Supply chain

System involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer

84.1K papers1.7M citations


A region of a transcribed gene present in the final functional mRNA molecule

38.3K papers1.7M citations

Regression analysis

Set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables

31K papers1.7M citations

Membrane protein

Proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes.

30.2K papers1.7M citations

Hippocampal formation

30.6K papers1.7M citations

Gene expression profiling

26.9K papers1.7M citations

Relative risk

Measure of association used in epidemiology

21K papers1.7M citations

User interface

Means by which a user interacts with and controls a machine

85.4K papers1.7M citations

Terminal (electronics)

Connection point in electronic circuits

362.6K papers1.7M citations

Support vector machine

73.6K papers1.7M citations


Mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements

171.8K papers1.7M citations

Educational technology

Use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching

72.4K papers1.7M citations

Messenger RNA

RNA that is read by the ribosome to produce a protein

34K papers1.7M citations

Communication channel

Physical or logical connection used for transmission of information

137.4K papers1.7M citations

Gene silencing

Process that prevents the expression of a gene

29.8K papers1.7M citations

Particle size


69.8K papers1.7M citations

Social relation

29.1K papers1.7M citations


Primary female sex hormone

40.7K papers1.7M citations

Photovoltaic system

Power system designed to supply usable electric power from solar energy

103.9K papers1.6M citations


Small non-coding ribonucleic acid molecule

32.7K papers1.6M citations


Step of self-assembly, including crystallization

63.8K papers1.6M citations


Travel for recreational or leisure purposes

109.5K papers1.6M citations

Robustness (computer science)

94.7K papers1.6M citations

Experiential learning

Learn by reflect on active involvement

63.4K papers1.6M citations

Ejection fraction

Fraction of blood ejected from a ventricle of the heart with each heartbeat

47.6K papers1.6M citations

Viral replication

Formation of biological viruses during the infection process

33.4K papers1.6M citations


Eventual increase of wavelength in radiation during travel

33.9K papers1.6M citations


Formation of blood cellular components

35.2K papers1.6M citations

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Spectroscopic technique

63.3K papers1.6M citations

Reynolds number

Dimensionless quantity used to help predict fluid flow patterns

68.4K papers1.6M citations