Bio: Alberto Albertini is an academic researcher from University of Brescia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ferritin & Hepatitis C virus. The author has an hindex of 45, co-authored 198 publications receiving 7812 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Former drinkers who had stopped 1-10 years previously had a higher risk of HCC than current drinkers did and a synergism between alcohol drinking and either infection was found, with approximately a twofold increase in the odds ratio for each hepatitis virus infection for drinkers of >60 g per day.
Abstract: The authors investigated the dose-effect relation between alcohol drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in men and women separately, also considering hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. They enrolled 464 subjects (380 men) with a first diagnosis of HCC as cases and 824 subjects (686 men) unaffected by hepatic diseases as controls; all were hospitalized in Brescia, northern Italy, in 1995-2000. Spline regression models showed a steady linear increase in the odds ratio of HCC for increasing alcohol intake, for values of >60 g of ethanol per day, with no substantial differences between men and women. Duration of drinking and age at start had no effect on the odds ratio when alcohol intake was considered. Former drinkers who had stopped 1-10 years previously had a higher risk of HCC than current drinkers did. The effect of alcohol drinking was evident even in the absence of hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, a synergism between alcohol drinking and either infection was found, with approximately a twofold increase in the odds ratio for each hepatitis virus infection for drinkers of >60 g per day.
TL;DR: Amnion and chorion can be considered as a novel and convenient source of adult MSCs because of their high morphogenetic plasticity and ability to form colonies that could be expanded for at least 15 passages.
Abstract: Bone marrow (BM) multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) present with multipotent differentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties. As an alternative to bone marrow, we have examined fetal membranes, amnion and chorion, of term human placenta as a potential source of multipotent MSCs. Here we show that amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs) and chorion mesenchymal cells (CMCs), isolated by mechanical separation and subsequent enzymatic digestion, demonstrate plastic adherence and fibroblast-like morphology and are able to form colonies that could be expanded for at least 15 passages. By FACS analysis, AMCs and CMCs were shown to be phenotypically similar to BM-MSCs and, when cultured in differentiation media, they demonstrated high morphogenetic plasticity by differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. In an attempt to isolate cells with MSC characteristics from human fetal membranes, AMCs and CMCs expressing CD271 were enriched by immunomagnetic isolation and were demonstrated to possess higher clonogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential than CD271-depleted fractions. Based on these findings, amnion and chorion can be considered as a novel and convenient source of adult MSCs.
TL;DR: Human amnion and chorion cells from term placenta can successfully engraft neonatal swine and rats and are suggested to represent an advantageous source of progenitor cells with potential applications in a variety of cell therapy and transplantation procedures.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fetal membranes are tissues of particular interest for several reasons, including their role in preventing rejection of the fetus and their early embryologic origin. which may entail progenitor potential. The immunologic reactivity and the transplantation potential of amnion and chorion cells, however, remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Amnion and chorion cells were isolated from human term placenta and characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric analysis, and expression profile of relevant genes. The immunomodulatory characteristics of these cells were studied in allogeneic and xenogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and their engraftment potential analyzed by transplantation into neonatal swine and rats. Posttransplant chimerism was determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with probes specific for human DNA. RESULTS: Phenotypic and gene expression studies indicated mesenchymal stem cell-like profiles in both amnion and chorion cells that were positive for neuronal, pulmonary, adhesion, and migration markers. In addition, cells isolated both from amnion and chorion did not induce allogeneic nor xenogeneic lymphocyte proliferation responses and were able to actively suppress lymphocyte responsiveness. Transplantation in neonatal swine and rats resulted in human microchimerism in various organs and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Human amnion and chorion cells from term placenta can successfully engraft neonatal swine and rats. These results may be explained by the peculiar immunologic characteristics and mesenchymal stem cell-like phenotype of these cells. These findings suggest that amnion and chorion cells may represent an advantageous source of progenitor cells with potential applications in a variety of cell therapy and transplantation procedures.
TL;DR: It was concluded that H. pylori infection can stimulate antibodies cross-reacting with gastric autoantigens and that this immunologic mechanism may represent a pathogenic link between H.pylori and gastritis.
Abstract: The authors' previous observation that many of the monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori cross-react with the cells of the human gastric mucosa prompted them to investigate the possibility that gastric self-antigens cross-reacting with H. pylori could be involved in the immune response against this organism. It was found that three antibodies against H. pylori, CB-4, CB-10, and CB-14, that cross-react with the human gastric mucosa also intensely cross-reacted with murine gastric epithelial cells. A strong reaction against autologous mucosa was also evident in the sera of mice immunized with H. pylori but not with other bacteria. A serological study performed in a group of 82 patients undergoing gastroscopy showed that the presence of seropositivity against H. pylori was strongly correlated with the presence of autoantibodies against human antral gastric mucosa. This activity was neutralized after absorption of the sera with H. pylori but not with other gram-negative bacteria. The antibodies in the mouse and in the human did not react with other segments of the gastrointestinal tract or with most of the other organs. Mice bearing hybridomas secreting a cross-reacting antibody (CB-4) had histopathologic abnormalities in their stomachs. These lesions were absent in the stomachs of mice bearing hybridomas secreting a non-cross-reacting antibody (CB-26). It was concluded that H. pylori infection can stimulate antibodies cross-reacting with gastric autoantigens and that this immunologic mechanism may represent a pathogenic link between H. pylori and gastritis.
TL;DR: It was found that inactivation of the ferroxidase centre combined with the substitution of four carboxy groups on the cavity abolished the ability of H-chain ferritin to incorporate iron, and the finding of cooperative roles of the H- and L-chains inFerritin iron uptake provides a clue to understanding the biological function of isoferritins.
Abstract: The ability to incorporate iron in vitro was studied in homopolymers of human ferritin L-chain, human ferritin H-chain and its variants and in homopolymer mixtures. The H-chain variants carried amino acid substitutions in the ferroxidase centre and/or in carboxy residues on the cavity surface. Iron incorporation was examined by gel electrophoresis of the reaction products by staining for iron and protein. It was found that inactivation of the ferroxidase centre combined with the substitution of four carboxy groups on the cavity abolished the ability of H-chain ferritin to incorporate iron. Competition experiments with limited amounts of iron showed that, at neutral pH, L-chain ferritin is more efficient in forming iron cores than the H-chain variants altered at the ferroxidase activity or in the cavity. Competition experiments at pH 5.5 demonstrated that L-chain apoferritin is able to incorporate iron only when in the presence of H-chain variants with ferroxidase activity. The results indicate that L-chain apoferritin has a higher capacity than the H-chain apoferritin to induce iron-core nucleation, whereas H-chain ferritin is superior in promoting Fe(II) oxidation. The finding of cooperative roles of the H- and L-chains in ferritin iron uptake provides a clue to understanding the biological function of isoferritins.
TL;DR: A detailed understanding of epidemiologic factors and molecular mechanisms associated with HCC ultimately could improve current concepts for screening and treatment of this disease.
Abstract: Primary liver cancer, which consists predominantly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. HCC has several interesting epidemiologic features including dynamic temporal trends; marked variations among geographic regions, racial and ethnic groups, and between men and women; and the presence of several well-documented environmental potentially preventable risk factors. Moreover, there is a growing understanding on the molecular mechanisms inducing hepatocarcinogenesis, which almost never occurs in healthy liver, but the cancer risk increases sharply in response to chronic liver injury at the cirrhosis stage. A detailed understanding of epidemiologic factors and molecular mechanisms associated with HCC ultimately could improve our current concepts for screening and treatment of this disease.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provided evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemi-chemic attack, including the control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke.
Abstract: The aim of this updated guideline is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage secondary prevention for these patients. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke. Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy. Special sections address use of antithrombotic and anticoagulation therapy after an intracranial hemorrhage and implementation of guidelines.
TL;DR: In this review, the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems are summarized and the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress are discussed.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed "oxidative stress." Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ function. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS. However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological conditions and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, diabetes, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the United States.
Abstract: Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in the time trends of HCC and most variations in its age-, sex-, and race-specific rates among different regions are likely to be related to differences in hepatitis viruses that are most prevalent in a population, the timing of their spread, and the ages of the individuals the viruses infect. Environmental, host genetic, and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection. This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the United States.
TL;DR: A previously unrecognized pathway for the activation of tumor antigen–specific T-cell immunity that involves secretion of the high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) alarmin protein by dying tumor cells and the action of HMGB1 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) is described.
Abstract: Conventional cancer treatments rely on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such treatments supposedly mediate their effects via the direct elimination of tumor cells. Here we show that the success of some protocols for anticancer therapy depends on innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. We describe in both mice and humans a previously unrecognized pathway for the activation of tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunity that involves secretion of the high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) alarmin protein by dying tumor cells and the action of HMGB1 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, DCs require signaling through TLR4 and its adaptor MyD88 for efficient processing and cross-presentation of antigen from dying tumor cells. Patients with breast cancer who carry a TLR4 loss-of-function allele relapse more quickly after radiotherapy and chemotherapy than those carrying the normal TLR4 allele. These results delineate a clinically relevant immunoadjuvant pathway triggered by tumor cell death.