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Population

All the organisms of a given species that live in a specified region

2.1M papers62.7M citations


Poison control

394.7K papers15.7M citations


Cancer

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth and spread

339.6K papers10.9M citations


Gene

Sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for an RNA or protein product

211.7K papers10.3M citations


Catalysis

Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction

400.9K papers8.7M citations


Receptor

159.3K papers8.2M citations


Signal transduction

Cascade of intracellular and molecular events for transmission/amplification of signals

122.6K papers8.2M citations


Transplantation

276.5K papers7.9M citations


Immune system

Biological system protecting an organism against disease

182.8K papers7.9M citations


Health care

Prevention of disease and promotion of wellbeing

342.1K papers7.2M citations


Antigen

Molecule triggering an immune response (antibody production) in the host

170.2K papers6.9M citations


Breast cancer

Cancer that originates in mammary glands

214.3K papers6.4M citations


Cellular differentiation

Process in which totipotent cells acquire specialized features

90.9K papers6M citations


Diabetes mellitus

169.2K papers6M citations


Stem cell

Undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells

129.1K papers5.9M citations


Adsorption

Phenomenon of surface adhesion

226.4K papers5.9M citations


Regulation of gene expression

Modifying mechanisms used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products

85.4K papers5.8M citations


Risk factor

Variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection

91.9K papers5.7M citations


T cell

White blood cells of the immune system

109.5K papers5.5M citations


Gene expression

Conversion of a gene's sequence into a mature gene product or products

113.3K papers5.5M citations


Context (language use)

Non-language factors that enhance understanding of communication

324.7K papers5.5M citations


RNA

Family of large biological molecules

111.6K papers5.4M citations


Transcription factor

Protein that regulates the rate of DNA transcription

82.8K papers5.4M citations


Politics

Activities associated with group decisions

263.7K papers5.3M citations


Cell culture

Process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions

133.3K papers5.3M citations


Virus

Infectious agent that replicates in cells

136.9K papers5.2M citations


Insulin

Peptide hormone

124.2K papers5.1M citations


Graphene

Hexagonal lattice made of carbon atoms

144.5K papers4.9M citations


Apoptosis

Programmed cell death in multicellular organisms

115.4K papers4.8M citations


Randomized controlled trial

Form of scientific experiment

119.8K papers4.8M citations


Galaxy

Astronomical structure

109.9K papers4.7M citations


Cytotoxic T cell

T cell that kills infected, damaged or cancerous cells

92.4K papers4.7M citations


Anxiety

Unpleasant complex combination of emotions

141.1K papers4.7M citations


DNA

Molecule that carries genetic information

107.1K papers4.7M citations


Signal

Varying physical quantity that conveys information

674.2K papers4.5M citations


Artificial neural network

Computational model used in machine learning, based on connected, hierarchical functions

207K papers4.5M citations


Thin film

275.5K papers4.5M citations


Cytokine

Broad and loose category of small proteins important in cell signaling

79.2K papers4.4M citations


Layer (electronics)

605.6K papers4.4M citations


Cognition

Act or process of knowing

99.9K papers4.3M citations


Laser

Device which emits light via optical amplification

353.1K papers4.3M citations


Peptide sequence

84.1K papers4.3M citations


Mental health

Level of psychological well-being

183.7K papers4.3M citations


Membrane

Thin, film-like structure separating two fluids, acting as a selective barrier

157.7K papers4.3M citations


Blood pressure

Pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of arteries

139.2K papers4.2M citations


Myocardial infarction

Interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart

119K papers4.2M citations


Antibody

Protein(s) forming a major part of an organism's immune system

113.9K papers4.1M citations


Nonlinear system

System where changes of output are not proportional to changes of input

208.1K papers4M citations


Inflammation

Physical effects resulting from activation of the immune system

76.4K papers4M citations


Amino acid

Organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic groups

124.9K papers4M citations


Pregnancy

Time of offspring development in mother's body

163.9K papers4M citations


Public health

Promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society and individuals

158.3K papers3.9M citations


Protein kinase A

Family of enzymes

68.4K papers3.9M citations


Phosphorylation

Chemical process of introducing a phosphate

69.3K papers3.8M citations


Insulin resistance

Medical condition

82.4K papers3.8M citations


The Internet

213.2K papers3.8M citations


Programmed cell death

Death of a cell mediated by intracellular program, often as part of development

60.5K papers3.8M citations


Oxidative stress

Free radical toxicity

86.5K papers3.8M citations


Genome

All genetic material of an organism

74.2K papers3.8M citations


Stroke

Death of a region of brain cells due to poor blood flow

112.7K papers3.7M citations


Cell growth

Increase in the total cell mass

104.2K papers3.7M citations


Carbon nanotube

Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure

109K papers3.6M citations


Oxide

Chemical compound with at least one oxygen atom attached to the central atom

213.4K papers3.6M citations


Kinase

Enzyme catalyzing transfer of phosphate groups onto specific substrates

65.8K papers3.5M citations


Heart failure

Failure of the heart to provide sufficient blood flow

107.8K papers3.5M citations


Climate change

Current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects

99.2K papers3.5M citations


Image processing

229.9K papers3.5M citations


Higher education

Academic tertiary education, such as from colleges and universities

244.3K papers3.5M citations


Cancer cell

Tumor cell

93.4K papers3.5M citations


Survival rate

Medical analysis of disease

73.3K papers3.5M citations


Aqueous solution

Solution in which the solvent is water

189.5K papers3.4M citations


Mutant

Phenotypically-different organism resulting from a mutation

74.5K papers3.4M citations


Metastasis

Spread of a disease inside a body

103.6K papers3.4M citations


Cell cycle

Series of events and stages that result in cell division

81.7K papers3.3M citations


Angiogenesis

Blood vessel formation, when new vessels emerge from existing vessels

58.2K papers3.2M citations


Proinflammatory cytokine

60.3K papers3.2M citations


Carcinogenesis

Formation of cancer

60.3K papers3.1M citations


Intensive care

98.9K papers3.1M citations


Bone marrow

Semi-solid tissue in the spongy portions of bones

87.5K papers3.1M citations


Control theory

Branch of engineering and mathematics

299.6K papers3.1M citations


Coating

Any substance spread over a surface

379.8K papers3.1M citations


Finite element method

Numerical method for solving physical or engineering problems

178.6K papers3M citations


Odds ratio

Statistic quantifying the association between two events

68.7K papers3M citations


Protein structure

Three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule

42.3K papers3M citations


Silicon

Chemical element, symbol Si and atomic number 14

196K papers3M citations


Type 2 diabetes

Type of diabetes mellitus with high blood sugar and insulin resistance

69.6K papers3M citations


Mitochondrion

Organelle in eukaryotic cells responsible for respiration

51.5K papers3M citations


Scattering

Range of physical processes

152.3K papers3M citations


Tumor necrosis factor alpha

55.2K papers3M citations


Soil water

97.8K papers2.9M citations


Cluster analysis

Grouping a set of objects by similarity

146.5K papers2.9M citations


Transcription (biology)

Process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA

56.5K papers2.9M citations


Body mass index

Relative weight based on mass and height

73K papers2.9M citations


Heat transfer

Transport of thermal energy in physical systems

181.7K papers2.9M citations


Raman spectroscopy

Spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system

122.6K papers2.8M citations


Prostate cancer

Male reproductive organ cancer

88.6K papers2.8M citations


European union

171.6K papers2.8M citations


Cohort study

Form of longitudinal study

58.9K papers2.8M citations


Corporate governance

Mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated

118.5K papers2.7M citations


Dielectric

Electrically insulating substance able to be polarised by an applied electric field

169.7K papers2.7M citations