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All the organisms of a given species that live in a specified region

2.1M papers62.7M citations

Poison control

394.7K papers15.7M citations


Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth and spread

339.6K papers10.9M citations


Sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for an RNA or protein product

211.7K papers10.3M citations


Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction

400.9K papers8.7M citations


159.3K papers8.2M citations

Signal transduction

Cascade of intracellular and molecular events for transmission/amplification of signals

122.6K papers8.2M citations


276.5K papers7.9M citations

Immune system

Biological system protecting an organism against disease

182.8K papers7.9M citations

Health care

Prevention of disease and promotion of wellbeing

342.1K papers7.2M citations


Molecule triggering an immune response (antibody production) in the host

170.2K papers6.9M citations

Breast cancer

Cancer that originates in mammary glands

214.3K papers6.4M citations

Cellular differentiation

Process in which totipotent cells acquire specialized features

90.9K papers6M citations

Diabetes mellitus

169.2K papers6M citations

Stem cell

Undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells

129.1K papers5.9M citations


Phenomenon of surface adhesion

226.4K papers5.9M citations

Regulation of gene expression

Modifying mechanisms used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products

85.4K papers5.8M citations

Risk factor

Variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection

91.9K papers5.7M citations

T cell

White blood cells of the immune system

109.5K papers5.5M citations

Gene expression

Conversion of a gene's sequence into a mature gene product or products

113.3K papers5.5M citations

Context (language use)

Non-language factors that enhance understanding of communication

324.7K papers5.5M citations


Family of large biological molecules

111.6K papers5.4M citations

Transcription factor

Protein that regulates the rate of DNA transcription

82.8K papers5.4M citations


Activities associated with group decisions

263.7K papers5.3M citations

Cell culture

Process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions

133.3K papers5.3M citations


Infectious agent that replicates in cells

136.9K papers5.2M citations


Peptide hormone

124.2K papers5.1M citations


Hexagonal lattice made of carbon atoms

144.5K papers4.9M citations


Programmed cell death in multicellular organisms

115.4K papers4.8M citations

Randomized controlled trial

Form of scientific experiment

119.8K papers4.8M citations


Astronomical structure

109.9K papers4.7M citations

Cytotoxic T cell

T cell that kills infected, damaged or cancerous cells

92.4K papers4.7M citations


Unpleasant complex combination of emotions

141.1K papers4.7M citations


Molecule that carries genetic information

107.1K papers4.7M citations


Varying physical quantity that conveys information

674.2K papers4.5M citations

Artificial neural network

Computational model used in machine learning, based on connected, hierarchical functions

207K papers4.5M citations

Thin film

275.5K papers4.5M citations


Broad and loose category of small proteins important in cell signaling

79.2K papers4.4M citations

Layer (electronics)

605.6K papers4.4M citations


Act or process of knowing

99.9K papers4.3M citations


Device which emits light via optical amplification

353.1K papers4.3M citations

Peptide sequence

84.1K papers4.3M citations

Mental health

Level of psychological well-being

183.7K papers4.3M citations


Thin, film-like structure separating two fluids, acting as a selective barrier

157.7K papers4.3M citations

Blood pressure

Pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of arteries

139.2K papers4.2M citations

Myocardial infarction

Interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart

119K papers4.2M citations


Protein(s) forming a major part of an organism's immune system

113.9K papers4.1M citations

Nonlinear system

System where changes of output are not proportional to changes of input

208.1K papers4M citations


Physical effects resulting from activation of the immune system

76.4K papers4M citations

Amino acid

Organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic groups

124.9K papers4M citations


Time of offspring development in mother's body

163.9K papers4M citations

Public health

Promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society and individuals

158.3K papers3.9M citations

Protein kinase A

Family of enzymes

68.4K papers3.9M citations


Chemical process of introducing a phosphate

69.3K papers3.8M citations

Insulin resistance

Medical condition

82.4K papers3.8M citations

The Internet

213.2K papers3.8M citations

Programmed cell death

Death of a cell mediated by intracellular program, often as part of development

60.5K papers3.8M citations

Oxidative stress

Free radical toxicity

86.5K papers3.8M citations


All genetic material of an organism

74.2K papers3.8M citations


Death of a region of brain cells due to poor blood flow

112.7K papers3.7M citations

Cell growth

Increase in the total cell mass

104.2K papers3.7M citations

Carbon nanotube

Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure

109K papers3.6M citations


Chemical compound with at least one oxygen atom attached to the central atom

213.4K papers3.6M citations


Enzyme catalyzing transfer of phosphate groups onto specific substrates

65.8K papers3.5M citations

Heart failure

Failure of the heart to provide sufficient blood flow

107.8K papers3.5M citations

Climate change

Current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects

99.2K papers3.5M citations

Image processing

229.9K papers3.5M citations

Higher education

Academic tertiary education, such as from colleges and universities

244.3K papers3.5M citations

Cancer cell

Tumor cell

93.4K papers3.5M citations

Survival rate

Medical analysis of disease

73.3K papers3.5M citations

Aqueous solution

Solution in which the solvent is water

189.5K papers3.4M citations


Phenotypically-different organism resulting from a mutation

74.5K papers3.4M citations


Spread of a disease inside a body

103.6K papers3.4M citations

Cell cycle

Series of events and stages that result in cell division

81.7K papers3.3M citations


Blood vessel formation, when new vessels emerge from existing vessels

58.2K papers3.2M citations

Proinflammatory cytokine

60.3K papers3.2M citations


Formation of cancer

60.3K papers3.1M citations

Intensive care

98.9K papers3.1M citations

Bone marrow

Semi-solid tissue in the spongy portions of bones

87.5K papers3.1M citations

Control theory

Branch of engineering and mathematics

299.6K papers3.1M citations


Any substance spread over a surface

379.8K papers3.1M citations

Finite element method

Numerical method for solving physical or engineering problems

178.6K papers3M citations

Odds ratio

Statistic quantifying the association between two events

68.7K papers3M citations

Protein structure

Three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule

42.3K papers3M citations


Chemical element, symbol Si and atomic number 14

196K papers3M citations

Type 2 diabetes

Type of diabetes mellitus with high blood sugar and insulin resistance

69.6K papers3M citations


Organelle in eukaryotic cells responsible for respiration

51.5K papers3M citations


Range of physical processes

152.3K papers3M citations

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

55.2K papers3M citations

Soil water

97.8K papers2.9M citations

Cluster analysis

Grouping a set of objects by similarity

146.5K papers2.9M citations

Transcription (biology)

Process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA

56.5K papers2.9M citations

Body mass index

Relative weight based on mass and height

73K papers2.9M citations

Heat transfer

Transport of thermal energy in physical systems

181.7K papers2.9M citations

Raman spectroscopy

Spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system

122.6K papers2.8M citations

Prostate cancer

Male reproductive organ cancer

88.6K papers2.8M citations

European union

171.6K papers2.8M citations

Cohort study

Form of longitudinal study

58.9K papers2.8M citations

Corporate governance

Mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated

118.5K papers2.7M citations


Electrically insulating substance able to be polarised by an applied electric field

169.7K papers2.7M citations