Author

# Hui Zou

Other affiliations: North Carolina State University, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University

Bio: Hui Zou is an academic researcher from University of Minnesota. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lasso (statistics) & Estimator. The author has an hindex of 44, co-authored 121 publications receiving 32120 citations. Previous affiliations of Hui Zou include North Carolina State University & Pennsylvania State University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: It is shown that the elastic net often outperforms the lasso, while enjoying a similar sparsity of representation, and an algorithm called LARS‐EN is proposed for computing elastic net regularization paths efficiently, much like algorithm LARS does for the lamba.

Abstract: Summary. We propose the elastic net, a new regularization and variable selection method. Real world data and a simulation study show that the elastic net often outperforms the lasso, while enjoying a similar sparsity of representation. In addition, the elastic net encourages a grouping effect, where strongly correlated predictors tend to be in or out of the model together.The elastic net is particularly useful when the number of predictors (p) is much bigger than the number of observations (n). By contrast, the lasso is not a very satisfactory variable selection method in the

16,538 citations

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TL;DR: A new version of the lasso is proposed, called the adaptive lasso, where adaptive weights are used for penalizing different coefficients in the ℓ1 penalty, and the nonnegative garotte is shown to be consistent for variable selection.

Abstract: The lasso is a popular technique for simultaneous estimation and variable selection. Lasso variable selection has been shown to be consistent under certain conditions. In this work we derive a necessary condition for the lasso variable selection to be consistent. Consequently, there exist certain scenarios where the lasso is inconsistent for variable selection. We then propose a new version of the lasso, called the adaptive lasso, where adaptive weights are used for penalizing different coefficients in the l1 penalty. We show that the adaptive lasso enjoys the oracle properties; namely, it performs as well as if the true underlying model were given in advance. Similar to the lasso, the adaptive lasso is shown to be near-minimax optimal. Furthermore, the adaptive lasso can be solved by the same efficient algorithm for solving the lasso. We also discuss the extension of the adaptive lasso in generalized linear models and show that the oracle properties still hold under mild regularity conditions. As a bypro...

6,765 citations

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TL;DR: This work introduces a new method called sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) using the lasso (elastic net) to produce modified principal components with sparse loadings and shows that PCA can be formulated as a regression-type optimization problem.

Abstract: Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used in data processing and dimensionality reduction. However, PCA suffers from the fact that each principal component is a linear combination of all the original variables, thus it is often difficult to interpret the results. We introduce a new method called sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) using the lasso (elastic net) to produce modified principal components with sparse loadings. We first show that PCA can be formulated as a regression-type optimization problem; sparse loadings are then obtained by imposing the lasso (elastic net) constraint on the regression coefficients. Efficient algorithms are proposed to fit our SPCA models for both regular multivariate data and gene expression arrays. We also give a new formula to compute the total variance of modified principal components. As illustrations, SPCA is applied to real and simulated data with encouraging results.

3,102 citations

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Stanford University

^{1}, Tel Aviv University^{2}, University of Michigan^{3}, University of Minnesota^{4}TL;DR: A new algorithm is proposed that naturally extends the original AdaBoost algorithm to the multiclass case without reducing it to multiple two-class problems and is extremely easy to implement and is highly competitive with the best currently available multi-class classification methods.

Abstract: Boosting has been a very successful technique for solving the two-class classification problem. In going from two-class to multi-class classification, most algorithms have been restricted to reducing the multi-class classification problem to multiple two-class problems. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that naturally extends the original AdaBoost algorithm to the multiclass case without reducing it to multiple two-class problems. Similar to AdaBoost in the twoclass case, this new algorithm combines weak classifiers and only requires the performance of each weak classifier be better than random guessing (rather than 1/2). We further provide a statistical justification for the new algorithm using a novel multi-class exponential loss function and forward stage-wise additive modeling. As shown in the paper, the new algorithm is extremely easy to implement and is highly competitive with the best currently available multi-class classification methods.

1,572 citations

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TL;DR: A new unified algorithm based on the local linear approximation for maximizing the penalized likelihood for a broad class of concave penalty functions and shows that if the regularization parameter is appropriately chosen, the one-step LLA estimates enjoy the oracle properties with good initial estimators.

Abstract: Fan & Li (2001) propose a family of variable selection methods via penalized likelihood using concave penalty functions. The nonconcave penalized likelihood estimators enjoy the oracle properties, but maximizing the penalized likelihood function is computationally challenging, because the objective function is nondifferentiable and nonconcave. In this article we propose a new unified algorithm based on the local linear approximation (LLA) for maximizing the penalized likelihood for a broad class of concave penalty functions. Convergence and other theoretical properties of the LLA algorithm are established. A distinguished feature of the LLA algorithm is that at each LLA step, the LLA estimator can naturally adopt a sparse representation. Thus we suggest using the one-step LLA estimator from the LLA algorithm as the final estimates. Statistically, we show that if the regularization parameter is appropriately chosen, the one-step LLA estimates enjoy the oracle properties with good initial estimators. Computationally, the one-step LLA estimation methods dramatically reduce the computational cost in maximizing the nonconcave penalized likelihood. We conduct some Monte Carlo simulation to assess the finite sample performance of the one-step sparse estimation methods. The results are very encouraging.

1,131 citations

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07 Jun 2015TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).

Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

40,257 citations

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23 May 2011

TL;DR: It is argued that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas.

Abstract: Many problems of recent interest in statistics and machine learning can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Due to the explosion in size and complexity of modern datasets, it is increasingly important to be able to solve problems with a very large number of features or training examples. As a result, both the decentralized collection or storage of these datasets as well as accompanying distributed solution methods are either necessary or at least highly desirable. In this review, we argue that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas. The method was developed in the 1970s, with roots in the 1950s, and is equivalent or closely related to many other algorithms, such as dual decomposition, the method of multipliers, Douglas–Rachford splitting, Spingarn's method of partial inverses, Dykstra's alternating projections, Bregman iterative algorithms for l1 problems, proximal methods, and others. After briefly surveying the theory and history of the algorithm, we discuss applications to a wide variety of statistical and machine learning problems of recent interest, including the lasso, sparse logistic regression, basis pursuit, covariance selection, support vector machines, and many others. We also discuss general distributed optimization, extensions to the nonconvex setting, and efficient implementation, including some details on distributed MPI and Hadoop MapReduce implementations.

17,433 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the elastic net often outperforms the lasso, while enjoying a similar sparsity of representation, and an algorithm called LARS‐EN is proposed for computing elastic net regularization paths efficiently, much like algorithm LARS does for the lamba.

Abstract: Summary. We propose the elastic net, a new regularization and variable selection method. Real world data and a simulation study show that the elastic net often outperforms the lasso, while enjoying a similar sparsity of representation. In addition, the elastic net encourages a grouping effect, where strongly correlated predictors tend to be in or out of the model together.The elastic net is particularly useful when the number of predictors (p) is much bigger than the number of observations (n). By contrast, the lasso is not a very satisfactory variable selection method in the

16,538 citations

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TL;DR: In comparative timings, the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods and can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features.

Abstract: We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include l(1) (the lasso), l(2) (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods.

13,656 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations