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K.Venkatesh Prasad

Bio: K.Venkatesh Prasad is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Statistical signal processing & Sensor fusion. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 2 publications receiving 326 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that when decoherence is taken into account, the maximal possible quantum enhancement in the asymptotic limit of infinite N amounts generically to a constant factor rather than quadratic improvement.
Abstract: Quantum metrology employs the properties of quantum states to further enhance the accuracy of some of the most precise measurement schemes to date. Here, a method for estimating the upper bounds to achievable precision in quantum-enhanced metrology protocols in the presence of decoherence is presented.

608 citations

01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: This article distills spectral unmixing algorithms into a unique set and surveys their characteristics through hierarchical taxonomies that reveal the commonalities and differences between algorithms.
Abstract: ■ Spatial pixel sizes for multispectral and hyperspectral sensors are often large enough that numerous disparate substances can contribute to the spectrum measured from a single pixel. Consequently, the desire to extract from a spectrum the constituent materials in the mixture, as well as the proportions in which they appear, is important to numerous tactical scenarios in which subpixel detail is valuable. With this goal in mind, spectral unmixing algorithms have proliferated in a variety of disciplines that exploit hyperspectral data, often duplicating and renaming previous techniques. This article distills these approaches into a unique set and surveys their characteristics through hierarchical taxonomies that reveal the commonalities and differences between algorithms. A set of criteria organizes algorithms according to the philosophical assumptions they impose on the unmixing problem. Examples demonstrate the performance of key techniques.

469 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived closed-form expressions for the user rates and a scaling law that shows how fast the hardware imperfections can increase with $N$ while maintaining high rates.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are cellular networks where the base stations (BSs) are equipped with unconventionally many antennas, deployed on co-located or distributed arrays. Huge spatial degrees-of-freedom are achieved by coherent processing over these massive arrays, which provide strong signal gains, resilience to imperfect channel knowledge, and low interference. This comes at the price of more infrastructure; the hardware cost and circuit power consumption scale linearly/affinely with the number of BS antennas $N$ . Hence, the key to cost-efficient deployment of large arrays is low-cost antenna branches with low circuit power, in contrast to today's conventional expensive and power-hungry BS antenna branches. Such low-cost transceivers are prone to hardware imperfections, but it has been conjectured that the huge degrees-of-freedom would bring robustness to such imperfections. We prove this claim for a generalized uplink system with multiplicative phase-drifts, additive distortion noise, and noise amplification. Specifically, we derive closed-form expressions for the user rates and a scaling law that shows how fast the hardware imperfections can increase with $N$ while maintaining high rates. The connection between this scaling law and the power consumption of different transceiver circuits is rigorously exemplified. This reveals that one can make the circuit power increase as $\sqrt{N} $ , instead of linearly, by careful circuit-aware system design.

399 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed power scheduling scheme suggests that the sensors with bad channels or poor observation qualities should decrease their quantization resolutions or simply become inactive in order to save power.
Abstract: We consider the optimal power scheduling problem for the decentralized estimation of a noise-corrupted deterministic signal in an inhomogeneous sensor network. Sensor observations are first quantized into discrete messages, then transmitted to a fusion center where a final estimate is generated. Supposing that the sensors use a universal decentralized quantization/estimation scheme and an uncoded quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) transmission strategy, we determine the optimal quantization and transmit power levels at local sensors so as to minimize the total transmit power, while ensuring a given mean squared error (mse) performance. The proposed power scheduling scheme suggests that the sensors with bad channels or poor observation qualities should decrease their quantization resolutions or simply become inactive in order to save power. For the remaining active sensors, their optimal quantization and transmit power levels are determined jointly by individual channel path losses, local observation noise variance, and the targeted mse performance. Numerical examples show that in inhomogeneous sensing environment, significant energy savings is possible when compared to the uniform quantization strategy.

390 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a constrained weighted least squares (CWLS) mobile positioning approach that encompasses all the above described measurement cases and shows that all the developed CWLS location estimators achieve zero bias and the Cramér-Rao lower bound approximately when measurement error variances are small.
Abstract: The problem of locating a mobile terminal has received significant attention in the field of wireless communications. Time-of-arrival (TOA), received signal strength (RSS), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), and angle-of-arrival (AOA) are commonly used measurements for estimating the position of the mobile station. In this paper, we present a constrained weighted least squares (CWLS) mobile positioning approach that encompasses all the above described measurement cases. The advantages of CWLS include performance optimality and capability of extension to hybrid measurement cases (e.g., mobile positioning using TDOA and AOA measurements jointly). Assuming zero-mean uncorrelated measurement errors, we show by mean and variance analysis that all the developed CWLS location estimators achieve zero bias and the Cramer-Rao lower bound approximately when measurement error variances are small. The asymptotic optimum performance is also confirmed by simulation results.

276 citations