Other affiliations: PARC
Bio: Lynn Conway is an academic researcher from University of Michigan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Controller (computing) & Design methods. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 24 publications receiving 3816 citations. Previous affiliations of Lynn Conway include PARC.
01 Jan 1978
••01 Apr 1990
TL;DR: Concepts called time and position clutches are introduced and lead to substantial telemanipulation performance improvements, including the novel result of improvements even in the absence of time delays.
Abstract: The authors have coined the term teleautonomous to describe methods for producing intelligent action at a distance. Teleautomation goes beyond autonomous control in that it blends in human intelligence and action as appropriate. It goes beyond teleoperation in that it incorporates as much autonomy as is possible or reasonable. A novel approach for solving one of the fundamental problems facing teleautonomous systems is discussed in detail: the need to overcome time delays due to telemetry and signal propagation. Concepts called time and position clutches are introduced; these allow the time and position frames, respectively, between the local user control and the remote device being controlled to be desynchronized. The design and implementation of these mechanisms lead to substantial telemanipulation performance improvements, including the novel result of improvements even in the absence of time delays. The controls also yield a simple protocol for handoffs of the control of manipulation tasks between local operators and remote systems. >
•10 Mar 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present tele-operations with the active assistance and supervision of a cognitive agent, such as a human being, who generates a future path plan in real time for immediate use by an automated on-line controlled agent.
Abstract: Systems and methods for performing tele-operations with the active assistance and supervision of a cognitive agent, such as a human being, who generates a future path plan in real time for immediate use by an automated on-line controlled agent, such as a work robot or other manipulator, are disclosed. The systems and methods may employ a visual display to present images of the controlled agent, of a foward simulation of the controlled agent, and of the future path plan being generated to enable a human operator to assess and control the on-going activity. The system simultaneously operates the controlled agent and produces the forward simulation and path plan, all under real time conditions. The cognitive agent, display and forward simulation equipment may be at one location and the controlled agent and its controller at another remote location. The forward simulation may be selectively operated in one of three modes: a time-and-position synchronized mode, a position-synchronized, time-desynchronized mode, and a mode where neither time nor position are synchronized with the controlled agent. The desynchronization of time and of position of the forward simulation with respect to the controlled agent is accomplished by use of a time clutch and a position clutch. The forward simulation can also be reversed through the use of a time brake, and the time ratio between the forward simulation time and real time can be adjusted. Finally, a method for transferring active control of functioning autonomously-operated equipment from one cognitive agent to another cognitive agent under real time conditions is disclosed.
•16 Mar 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a system for controlling devices remotely by embedding command information within video signals, which includes gestures or icons which are imbedded into the video signal and enable the user to interpret the command information by viewing the icon or gesture on a monitor or display device.
Abstract: Systems and methods for controlling devices remotely by embedding command information within video signals. The command information includes gestures or icons which are imbedded into the video signal and enable the user to interpret the command information by viewing the icon or gesture on a monitor or display device. By viewing the monitor or display device, the user can determine what command information is conveyed within the video signal. Further, imbedding the visually interpretable icon or gesture within the video signal facilitates transmitting the video signal having the command information imbedded therein using analog to digital conversions and reconversions and transmission through any of a various number of switching networks. The remote devices may by any of a number of electronically controlled electrical or mechanical devices. A device controller at the remote end receives, the decoded command information and generates the appropriate commands to operate the controlled device.
•11 Dec 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, a pointer overlay device is used to overlay the pointer and the overlaid video signal is then transmitted to the remote teleconference sites by providing remote control means to actively position the video imaging device at a remote site.
Abstract: Systems and methods for performing teleinteractive video teleconferencing between two or more teleconference sites, and for enabling any number of teleconference sites to overlay a pointer to point within the video image originating from any teleconference site. The systems and methods employ at least one video imaging device to capture images at a local teleconference site and N display devices to display images captured at the local and the remote teleconference sites, where N is the total number of teleconference sites comprising the system. The teleinteractive capability is accomplished when a local teleconference site selectively inputs the video imaging signal from a remote teleconference site into a pointer overlay device rather than the local video image. The pointer overlay device then overlays the pointer and the overlaid video signal is then transmitted to the remote teleconference sites. Finally, by providing remote control means to actively position the video imaging device at a remote site, the position of the overlaid pointer within a displayed image can be used to reposition a video imaging device at a remote teleconference site.
TL;DR: Results of computer simulations of a network designed to solve a difficult but well-defined optimization problem-the Traveling-Salesman Problem-are presented and used to illustrate the computational power of the networks.
Abstract: Highly-interconnected networks of nonlinear analog neurons are shown to be extremely effective in computing. The networks can rapidly provide a collectively-computed solution (a digital output) to a problem on the basis of analog input information. The problems to be solved must be formulated in terms of desired optima, often subject to constraints. The general principles involved in constructing networks to solve specific problems are discussed. Results of computer simulations of a network designed to solve a difficult but well-defined optimization problem-the Traveling-Salesman Problem-are presented and used to illustrate the computational power of the networks. Good solutions to this problem are collectively computed within an elapsed time of only a few neural time constants. The effectiveness of the computation involves both the nonlinear analog response of the neurons and the large connectivity among them. Dedicated networks of biological or microelectronic neurons could provide the computational capabilities described for a wide class of problems having combinatorial complexity. The power and speed naturally displayed by such collective networks may contribute to the effectiveness of biological information processing.
••02 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this article, a multiaxis classification of temporal and modal logic is presented, and the formal syntax and semantics for two representative systems of propositional branching-time temporal logics are described.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses temporal and modal logic. The chapter describes a multiaxis classification of systems of temporal logic. The chapter describes the framework of linear temporal logic. In both its propositional and first-order forms, linear temporal logic has been widely employed in the specification and verification of programs. The chapter describes the competing framework of branching temporal logic, which has seen wide use. It also explains how temporal logic structures can be used to model concurrent programs using non-determinism and fairness. The chapter also discusses other modal and temporal logics in computer science. The chapter describes the formal syntax and semantics of Propositional Linear Temporal Logic (PLTL). The chapter also describes the formal syntax and semantics for two representative systems of propositional branching-time temporal logics.
•14 Sep 2011
TL;DR: The paper is intended to raise awareness of the far-reaching implications of the architecture of the product, to create a vocabulary for discussing and addressing the decisions and issues that are linked to product architecture, and to identify and discuss specific trade-offs associated with the choice of a product architecture.
Abstract: Product architecture is the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components. This paper further defines product architecture, provides a typology of product architectures, and articulates the potential linkages between the architecture of the product and five areas of managerial importance: (1) product change; (2) product variety; (3) component standardization; (4) product performance; and (5) product development management. The paper is conceptual and foundational, synthesizing fragments from several different disciplines, including software engineering, design theory, operations management and product development management. The paper is intended to raise awareness of the far-reaching implications of the architecture of the product, to create a vocabulary for discussing and addressing the decisions and issues that are linked to product architecture, and to identify and discuss specific trade-offs associated with the choice of a product architecture.
TL;DR: The basic principle of systolic architectures is reviewed and it is explained why they should result in cost-effective, highperformance special-purpose systems for a wide range of problems.
Abstract: f High-performance, special-purpose computer systems are typically used to meet specific application requirements or to off-load computations that are especially taxing to general-purpose computers. As hardware cost and size continue to drop and processing requirements become well-understood in areas such as signal and image processing, more special-purpose systems are being constructed. However, since most of these systems are built on an ad hoc basis for specific tasks, methodological work in this area is rare. Because the knowledge gaited from individual experiences is neither accumulated nor properly organized, the same errors are repeated. I/O and computation imbalance is a notable example-often, the fact that I/O interfaces cannot keep up with device speed is discovered only after constructing a high-speed, special-purpose device. We intend to help correct this ad hoc approach by providing a general guideline-specifically, the concept of systolic architecture, a general methodology for mapping high-level computations into hardware structures. In a systolic system, data flows from the computer memcory in a rhythmic fashion, passing through many processing elements before it returns to memory, much as blood circulates to and from the heart. The system works like an autombbile assembly line where different people work on the same car at different times and many cars are assembled simultaneously. An assembly line is always linear, however, and systolic systems are sometimes two-dimensional. They can be rectangular, triangular, or hexagonal to make use of higher degrees of parallelism. Moreover, to implement a variety of computations, data flow in a systolic system may be at multiple speeds in multiple directions-both inputs and (partial) results flow, whereas only results flow in classical pipelined systems. Generally speaking, a systolic system is easy to implement because of its regularity and easy to reconfigure (to meet various outside constraints) because of its modularity. The systolic architectural concept was developed at Carnegie-Mellon University,'17 and versions of systolic processors are being designed and built by several industrial and governmental organizations.840 This article reviews the basic principle of systolic architectures and explains why they should result in cost-effective, highperformance special-purpose systems for a wide range of problems.
TL;DR: The OBDD data structure is described and a number of applications that have been solved by OBDd-based symbolic analysis are surveyed.
Abstract: Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satisfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide variety of problems can be solved through symbolic analysis. First, the possible variations in system parameters and operating conditions are encoded with Boolean variables. Then the system is evaluated for all variations by a sequence of OBDD operations. Researchers have thus solved a number of problems in digital-system design, finite-state system analysis, artificial intelligence, and mathematical logic. This paper describes the OBDD data structure and surveys a number of applications that have been solved by OBDD-based symbolic analysis.