Other affiliations: University of British Columbia
Bio: Tom Calvert is an academic researcher from Simon Fraser University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Animation & Dance. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 59 publications receiving 2521 citations. Previous affiliations of Tom Calvert include University of British Columbia.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Evidence is found that there is a different physiological response in the body whenPlaying against a computer versus playing against a friend, and guidelines are provided for collecting physiological data for user experience analysis.
Abstract: Emerging technologies offer exciting new ways of using entertainment technology to create fantastic play experiences and foster interactions between players. Evaluating entertainment technology is challenging because success isn't defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods of evaluating entertainment technology aren't sufficiently robust. This paper describes two experiments designed to test the efficacy of physiological measures as evaluators of user experience with entertainment technologies. We found evidence that there is a different physiological response in the body when playing against a computer versus playing against a friend. These physiological results are mirrored in the subjective reports provided by the participants. In addition, we provide guidelines for collecting physiological data for user experience analysis, which were informed by our empirical investigations. This research provides an initial step towards usi...
01 Jul 1989
TL;DR: A hybrid approach to the animation of human locomotion which combines goal-directed and dynamic motion control is presented, which has shown that when a few parameters, such as velocity, step length and step frequency are specified, a wide variety of human walks can be generated in almost real-time.
Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid approach to the animation of human locomotion which combines goal-directed and dynamic motion control. Knowledge about a locomotion cycle is incorporated into a hierarchical control process. The desired locomotion is conveniently specified at the top level as a task (e.g. walk at speed v), which is then decomposed by application of the concepts of step symmetry and state-phase-timings. As a result of this decomposition, the forces and torques that drive the dynamic model of the legs are determined by numerical approximation techniques. Rather than relying on a general dynamic model, the equations of motion of the legs are tailored to locomotion and analytically constrained to allow for only a specific range of movements. The dynamics of the legs produce a generic, natural locomotion pattern which is visually upgraded by some kinematic "cosmetics" derived from such principles as virtual leg and determinants of gait. A system has been implemented based on these principles and has shown that when a few parameters, such as velocity, step length and step frequency are specified, a wide variety of human walks can be generated in almost real-time.
01 May 1996
TL;DR: This paper introduces a model to generate emotional animation from neutral humanmotion using techniques from signal processing, which is then applied to existing motions of articulated gures in order to produce the same motions, but with an emotional quality such as angry or sad.
Abstract: This paper introduces a model to generate \emotional" animation from eutral" humanmotion. Using techniques from signal processing, our method calculates certain emotional transformswhich are then applied to existing motions of articulated gures in order to produce the same motions, but with an emotional quality such as angry or sad. These transforms capture the di erence between a neutral and emotional movement with respect to two components: speed (timing), and spatial amplitude (range) of a movement. Since the transforms are applied as global operations, they provide a convenient and e cient way to adapt motion-captured, simulated or keyframed animation of articulated gures to di erent situations and characters.
01 Feb 1976
TL;DR: A systems model is proposed to relate a Profile of athletic performance to a profile of training and it is shown that if a time series of training impulses is used as input, a swimmer's performance in 100 m criterion performances can be modeled rather well with a simple linear system.
Abstract: A systems model is proposed to relate a profile of athletic performance to a profile of training. The general model assumes that performance has four components: endurance, strength, skill, and psychological factors. Each of these factors is discussed and ascribed a transfer function. A major problem is the quantification of both training and performance. The case of a swimmer is studied in detail. It is shown that if a time series of training impulses is used as input, his performance in 100 m criterion performances can be modeled rather well with a simple linear system. The major conclusion is that performance appears to be related to the difference between fitness and fatigue functions. The fitness function is related to training by a first-order system with time constant 50 days, whereas the fatigue function is related to training by a similar system with time constant 15 days. An appendix is provided to show how these systems can be simulated on a simple electronic calculator. The relationship of these relatively short-term efects on the individual performer (six months) to longer term effects on the same indiviudal is also discussed.
01 May 2003-International Journal of Human-computer Studies \/ International Journal of Man-machine Studies
TL;DR: An empirical investigation of the utility of several perceptual properties of motion in information-dense displays applied to notification shows that icons with simple motions, termed moticons, are effective coding techniques for notification and are often better detected and identified than colour and shape codes, especially in the periphery.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe an empirical investigation of the utility of several perceptual properties of motion in information-dense displays applied to notification. Notification relates to awareness and how dynamic information is communicated from the system to the user. Key to a notification technique is how easily the notification is detected and identified. Our initial studies show that icons with simple motions, termed moticons, are effective coding techniques for notification and in fact are often better detected and identified than colour and shape codes, especially in the periphery. A subsequent experiment compared the detection and distraction effects of different motion types in several task conditions. Our resutts reveal how different attributes of motion contribute to detection, identification and distraction and provide initial guidelines on how motion codes can be designed to support awareness in information-rich interfaces while minimizing unwanted side effects of distraction and irritation.
TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.
Abstract: In undergoing this life, many people always try to do and get the best. New knowledge, experience, lesson, and everything that can improve the life will be done. However, many people sometimes feel confused to get those things. Feeling the limited of experience and sources to be better is one of the lacks to own. However, there is a very simple thing that can be done. This is what your teacher always manoeuvres you to do this one. Yeah, reading is the answer. Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality. How can it be?
01 Jan 1978
TL;DR: This ebook is the first authorized digital version of Kernighan and Ritchie's 1988 classic, The C Programming Language (2nd Ed.), and is a "must-have" reference for every serious programmer's digital library.
Abstract: This ebook is the first authorized digital version of Kernighan and Ritchie's 1988 classic, The C Programming Language (2nd Ed.). One of the best-selling programming books published in the last fifty years, "K&R" has been called everything from the "bible" to "a landmark in computer science" and it has influenced generations of programmers. Available now for all leading ebook platforms, this concise and beautifully written text is a "must-have" reference for every serious programmers digital library. As modestly described by the authors in the Preface to the First Edition, this "is not an introductory programming manual; it assumes some familiarity with basic programming concepts like variables, assignment statements, loops, and functions. Nonetheless, a novice programmer should be able to read along and pick up the language, although access to a more knowledgeable colleague will help."
TL;DR: A number of promising applications are identified and an overview of recent developments in this domain is provided, including work on whole-body or hand motion and the various methodologies.
Abstract: The ability to recognize humans and their activities by vision is key for a machine to interact intelligently and effortlessly with a human-inhabited environment. Because of many potentially important applications, “looking at people” is currently one of the most active application domains in computer vision. This survey identifies a number of promising applications and provides an overview of recent developments in this domain. The scope of this survey is limited to work on whole-body or hand motion; it does not include work on human faces. The emphasis is on discussing the various methodologies; they are grouped in 2-D approaches with or without explicit shape models and 3-D approaches. Where appropriate, systems are reviewed. We conclude with some thoughts about future directions.
01 Dec 1988
TL;DR: In this paper, the spectral energy distribution of the reflected light from an object made of a specific real material is obtained and a procedure for accurately reproducing the color associated with the spectrum is discussed.
Abstract: This paper presents a new reflectance model for rendering computer synthesized images. The model accounts for the relative brightness of different materials and light sources in the same scene. It describes the directional distribution of the reflected light and a color shift that occurs as the reflectance changes with incidence angle. The paper presents a method for obtaining the spectral energy distribution of the light reflected from an object made of a specific real material and discusses a procedure for accurately reproducing the color associated with the spectral energy distribution. The model is applied to the simulation of a metal and a plastic.
TL;DR: This work shows that it can make motion editing more efficient by generalizing the edits an animator makes on short sequences of motion to other sequences, and predicts frames for the motion using Gaussian process models of kinematics and dynamics.
Abstract: One way that artists create compelling character animations is by manipulating details of a character's motion. This process is expensive and repetitive. We show that we can make such motion editing more efficient by generalizing the edits an animator makes on short sequences of motion to other sequences. Our method predicts frames for the motion using Gaussian process models of kinematics and dynamics. These estimates are combined with probabilistic inference. Our method can be used to propagate edits from examples to an entire sequence for an existing character, and it can also be used to map a motion from a control character to a very different target character. The technique shows good generalization. For example, we show that an estimator, learned from a few seconds of edited example animation using our methods, generalizes well enough to edit minutes of character animation in a high-quality fashion. Learning is interactive: An animator who wants to improve the output can provide small, correcting examples and the system will produce improved estimates of motion. We make this interactive learning process efficient and natural with a fast, full-body IK system with novel features. Finally, we present data from interviews with professional character animators that indicate that generalizing and propagating animator edits can save artists significant time and work.